ulcerative colitis, IBD
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the two most prevalent types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These conditions, which can be painful and debilitating and cause chronic inflammation of the digestive tract.
Diet & Nutrition HelpHelpful Dietary Changes
- Avoid sugar Crohn's patients consume more sugar than healthy patients.
- Reduce animal based protein and fat except for protein from fish.
- Avoid food allergens which, when avoided, has been reported to be helpful.
- Avoid nuts, raw fruit, and tomatoes, which has, in some cases, been helpful.
- Avoid fast food
- Fish oil: A special enteric-coated, "free fatty acid" form of EPA/DHA reduces inflammation and reported is the most effective form.
- Vitamin D: Malabsorption of vitamin D is common in Crohn's disease and contributes to bone loss.
- Multiple vitamin/mineral: Crohn's disease often leads to malabsorption so daily supplementation with a good high quality multivitamin/mineral is helpful.
- Saccharomyces boulardii: Diarrhea caused by Crohn's disease and other conditions has responded to Saccharomyces boulardii supplementation.
- Zinc: 25-50 mg per day, balanced with 2-4 mg per day of copper.
- Quit smoking There is evidence that smoking worsens Crohn's.
There are a number of proactive steps one can take that may significantly help reduce the symptoms of Chrohn's Disease.
Chronic diarrhea with abdominal pain, fever, loss of appetite, weight loss, and a sense of fullness in the abdomen are the most common symptoms. About one-third of Crohn's patients have a history of anal fissures or fistulas.
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's are quite similar. Both give rise to inflammation of the lining of your digestive tract, and both can cause severe bouts of abdominal pain and liquid diarrhea. Crohn's can develop anywhere in your digestive tract and may spread deep into affected tissue layers. Ulcerative colitis, however, generally affects only the innermost lining of your large intestine and rectum.
There is a consensus as to what does not cause IBD/UC. Scientists are getting closer to the likely cause.
- Bacteria and Fungi. Researchers have identified E. coli and Serratia marcescens bacteria and the fungus Candida tropicalis as being involved. The researchers compared people with Crohn's with similar gene structure, home environment and food as other family members and identified the two bacteria and the fungus as being unique in the family member with Crohn's.1
- Immune system. It is possible that an unknown virus or bacteria could be the causative agent. When the immune system attacks the invader the digestive tract becomes inflamed. Inflammation may arise from the virus or bacteria itself.
- Heredity. About 20% of those with IBD/UC have a sibling, parent, or child who also has the condition. Scientists are searching for a gene or genes that might make one more at risk.
- Environment. IBD is more common in city-dwellers and industrial nation populations and occurs more often among people living in cities. Environmental factors, including a diet high in fat or refined foods may play a role.
Diarrhea and cramps may be treated with anticholinergic drugs, loperamide (Imodium), diphenoxylate (Lomotil), or codeine. Anal irritation and loose stools can sometimes be improved by giving methylcellulose or psyllium preparations . Sulfasalazine is used in patients with mild to moderate colitis. Corticosteroids may be used during acute exacerbations, although long-term corticosteroid therapy does more harm than good. Certain immunosuppressive drugs may also be effective, including azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine. Secondary infections are managed with antibiotics.
- Arthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Osteoarthritis
- Eye inflammation: iritis and uveitis
- Skin rashes
- Osteomalacia, triggered by vitamin D deficiency
G. Hoarau, et al, Bacteriome and Mycobiome Interactions Underscore Microbial Dysbiosis in Familial Crohn’s Disease, mBio, September 2016.