Xtra Info: High Cholesterol Bibliography
1. Kromhout D, Menotti A, Bloemberg B, et al. Dietary saturated and trans fatty acids and cholesterol and 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease: the Seven Countries Study. Prev Med 1995;24:308-15.
2. Tell GS, Evans GW, Folsom AR, et al. Dietary fat intake and carotid artery wall thickness: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Am J Epidemiol 1994;139:979-89.
3. Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, et al. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial. Lancet 1990;336:129-33.
4. Denke MA, Grundy SM. Comparison of effects of lauric acid and palmitic acid on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:895-8.
5. Zock PL, de Vries JHM, Katan MB. Impact of myristic acid versus palmitic acid on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in healthy women and men. Arterioscler Thromb 1994;14:567-75.
6. Kumar PD. The role of coconut and coconut oil in coronary heart disease in Kerala, south India. Trop Doct 1997;27:215-7.
7. Denke MA, Grundy SM. Comparison of effects lof auric acid and palmitic acid on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:895-8.
8. Mendis S, Kumarasunderam R. The effect of daily consumption of coconut fat and soya-bean fat on plasma lipids and lipoproteins of young normolipidaemic men. Br J Nutr 1990;63:547-52.
9. Dreon DM, Fernstrom HA, Williams PT, Krauss RM. A very-low-fat diet is not associated with improved lipoprotein profiles in men with a predominance of large, low-density lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:411-8.
10. Hepner G, Fried R, St Jeor S, et al. Hypocholesterolemic effect of yogurt and milk. Am J Clin Nutr 1979;19-24.
11. Agerholm-Larsen L, Raben A, Haulrik N, et al. Effect of 8 week intake of probiotic milk products on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:288-97.
12. Bertolami MC, Faludi AA, Batlouni M. Evaluation of the effects of a new fermented milk product (Gaio) on primary hypercholesterolemia. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53:97-101.
13. Anderson JW, Gilliland SE. Effect of fermented milk (yogurt) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus L1 on serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans. J Am Coll Nutr 1999;18:43-50.
14. Schaafsma G, Meuling WJ, van Dokkum W, Bouley C. Effects of a milk product, fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with fructo-oligosaccharides added, on blood lipids in male volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:436-40.
15. Agerbaek M, Gerdes LU, Richelsen B. Hypocholesterolaemic effect of a new fermented milk product in healthy middle-aged men. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995;49:346-52.
16. Richelsen B, Kristensen K, Pedersen SB. Long-term (6 months) effect of a new fermented milk product on the level of plasma lipoproteins-a placebo-controlled and double blind study. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996;50:811-5.
17. De Roos NM, Schouten G, Katan MB. Yoghurt enriched with Lactobacillus acidophilus does not lower blood lipids in healthy men and women with normal to borderline high serum cholesterol levels. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53:277-80.
18. Thompson LU, Jenkins DJ, Amer MA, et al. The effect of fermented and unfermented milks on serum cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;36:1106-11.
19. Rossouw JE, Burger EM, Van der Vyver P, Ferreira JJ. The effect of skim milk, yoghurt, and full cream milk on human serum lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:351-6.
20. Santos MJ, Lopez-Jurado M, Llopis J, et al. Influence of dietary supplementation with fish on plasma total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol fractions in patients with coronary heart disease. J Nutr Med 1992;3:107-15.
21. Kromhout D, Bosschieter EB, Coulander CD. The inverse relation between fish consumption and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 1985;312:1205-9.
22. Ascherio A, Rimm EG, Stampfer MJ, et al. Dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and the risk of coronary disease among men. N Engl J Med 1995;332:977-82.
23. Albert CM, Manson JE, O'Donnell C, et al. Fish consumption and the risk of sudden death in the Physicians' Health Study. Circulation 1996;94(Suppl 1):I-578 [abstract #3382].
24. Thorogood M, Carter R, Benfield L, et al. Plasma lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in people with different diets in Britain. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987;295:351-3.
25. Burr ML, Sweetnam PM. Vegetarianism, dietary fiber and mortality. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;36:873-7.
26. Resnicow K, Barone J, Engle A, et al. Diet and serum lipids in vegan vegetarians: a model for risk reduction. J Am Dietet Assoc 1991;91:447-53.
27. Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, et al. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial. Lancet 1990;336:129-33.
28. Ornish D, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, et al. Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease. JAMA 1998;280:2001-7.
29. Connor SL, Connor WE. The importance of dietary cholesterol in coronary heart disease. Prev Med 1983;12:115-23 [review].
30. Edington JD, Geekie M, Carter R, et al. Serum lipid response to dietary cholesterol in subjects fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:58-62.
31. Raloff J. Oxidized lipids: a key to heart disease? Sci News 1985;127:278.
32. Levy Y, Maor I, Presser D, Aviram M. Consumption of eggs with meals increases the susceptibility of human plasma and low-density lipoprotein to lipid peroxidation. Ann Nutr Metabol 1996;40:243-51.
33. Shekelle RB, Stamler J. Dietary cholesterol and ischaemic heart disease. Lancet 1989;i:1177-9.
34. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, et al. A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women. JAMA 1999;281:1387-94.
35. Anderson JW, Chen WJL. Legumes and their soluble fiber: effect on cholesterol-rich lipoproteins. In: Furda I, ed. Unconventional Sources of Dietary Fiber. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1983.
36. Ripsin CM, Keenan JM, Jacobs DR, et al. Oat products and lipid lowering-a meta-analysis. JAMA 1992;267:3317-25.
37. Anderson JW, Allgood LD, Lawrence A, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium intake adjunctive to diet therapy in men and women with hypercholesterolemia: meta-analysis of 8 controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:472-9.
38. Miettinen TA, Tarpila S. Effect of pectin on serum cholesterol, fecal bile acids and biliary lipids in normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic individuals. Clin Chim Acta 1977;79:471-7.
39. Glore SR, Van Treeck D, Knehans AW, Guild M. Soluble fiber and serum lipids: a literature review. J Am Dietet Assoc 1994;94:425-36.
40. Romero AL, Romero JE, Galaviz S, Fernandez ML. Cookies enriched with psyllium or oat bran lower plasma LDL cholesterol in normal and hypercholesterolemic men from Northern Mexico. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:601-8.
41. Rimm EB, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, et al. Vegetable, fruit, and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. JAMA 1996;275:447-51.
42. Knopp RH, Superko HR, Davidson M, et al. Long-term blood cholesterol-lowering effects of a dietary fiber supplement. Am J Prev Med 1999;17:18-23.
43. Lovegrove JA, Clohessy A, Milon H, Williams CM. Modest doses of beta-glucan do not reduce concentrations of potentially atherogenic lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:49-55.
44. Uusitupa MI, Ruuskanen E, Makinen E, et al. A controlled study on the effect of beta-glucan-rich oat bran on serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects: relation to apolipoprotein E phenotype. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:651-9.
45. Braaten JT, Wood PJ, Scott FW, et al. Oat beta-glucan reduces blood cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994;48:465-74.
46. Davidson MH, Dugan LD, Burns JH, et al. The hypocholesterolemic effects of beta-glucan in oatmeal and oat bran. A dose-controlled study. JAMA 1991;265:1833-9.
47. Onning G, Wallmark A, Persson M, et al. Consumption of oat milk for 5 weeks lowers serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in free-living men with moderate hypercholesterolemia. Ann Nutr Metab 1999;43:301-9.
48. Beer MU, Arrigoni E, Amado R. Effects of oat gum on blood cholesterol levels in healthy young men. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995;49:517-22.
49. Bierenbaum ML, Reichstein R, Watkins TR. Reducing atherogenic risk in hyperlipemic humans with flaxseed supplementation: a preliminary report. J Am Coll Nutr 1993;12:501-4.
50. Cunnane SC, Ganguli S, Menard C, et al. High alpha-linolenic acid flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum): some nutritional properties in humans. Br J Nutr 1993;69:443-53.
51. Arjmandi BH, Khan DA, Juma S, et al. Whole flaxseed consumption lowers serum LDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) concentrations in postmenopausal women. Nutr Res 1998;18:1203-14.
52. Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Vidgen E, et al. Health aspects of partially defatted flaxseed, including effects on serum lipids, oxidative measures, and ex vivo androgen and progestin activity: a controlled crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:395-402.
53. Kelley DS, Nelson GJ, Love JE, et al. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid alters tissue fatty acid composition, but not blood lipids, lipoproteins or coagulation status in humans. Lipids 1993;28:533-7.
54. Chan JK, Bruce VM, McDonald BE. Dietary a-linolenic acid is as effective as oleic acid and linoleic acid in lowering blood cholesterol in normolipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:1230-4.
55. Pang D, Allman-Farinelli MA, Wong T, et al. Replacement of linoleic acid with alpha-linolenic acid does not alter blood lipids in normolipidaemic men. Br J Nutr 1998;80:163-7.
56. Mantzioris E, James MJ, Bibson RA, Cleland LG. Dietary substitution with an alpha-linolenic acid-rich vegetable oil increases eicosapentaenoic acid concentrations in tissues. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:1304-9.
57. Layne KS, Goh YK, Jumpsen JA, et al. Normal subjects consuming physiological levels of 18:3(n-3) and 20:5(n-3) from flaxseed or fish oils have characteristic differences in plasma lipid and lipoprotein fatty acid levels. J Nutr 1996;126:2130-40.
58. Nestel PJ, Pomeroy SE, Sasahara T, et al. Arterial compliance in obese subjects is improved with dietary plant n-3 fatty acid from flaxseed oil despite increased LDL oxidizability. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997;17:1163-70.
59. De Lorgeril M, Renaud S, Mamelle N, et al. Mediterranean alpha-linolenic-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Lancet 1994;343:1454-9.
60. De Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin J-L, et al. Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction. Final report of the Lyon Diety Heart Study. Circulation 1999;99:779-85. 61. Rice RD. Mediterranean diet. Lancet 1994;344:893-4 [letter].
62. Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, Cook-Newell ME. Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. N Engl J Med 1995;3333:276-82.
63. Sirtori CR, Pazzucconi F, Colombo L, et al. Double-blind study of the addition of high-protein soya milk v. cows' milk to the diet of patients with severe hypercholesterolaemia and resistance to or intolerance of statins. Br J Nutr 1999;82:91-6.
64. Teixeira SR, Potter SM, Weigel R, et al. Effects of feeding 4 levels of soy protein for 3 and 6 wk on blood lipids and apolipoproteins in moderately hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1077-84.
65. Baum JA, Teng H, Erdman JW Jr, et al. Long-term intake of soy protein improves blood lipid profiles and increases mononuclear cell low-density-lipoprotein receptor messenger RNA in hypercholesterolemic, postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:545-51.
66. Crouse JR 3rd, Morgan T, Terry JG, et al. A randomized trial comparing the effect of casein with that of soy protein containing varying amounts of isoflavones on plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:2070-6.
67. Teixeira SR, Potter SM, Weigel R, et al. Effects of feeding 4 levels of soy protein for 3 and 6 wk on blood lipids and apolipoproteins in moderately hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1077-84.
68. Potter SM, Baum JA, Teng H, et al. Soy protein and isoflavones: their effects on blood lipids and bone density in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:1375-79S.
69. Crouse JR 3rd, Morgan T, Terry JG, et al. A randomized trial comparing the effect of casein with that of soy protein containing varying amounts of isoflavones on plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:2070-6.
70. Greaves KA, Parks JS, Williams JK, Wagner JD. Intact dietary soy protein, but not adding an isoflavone-rich soy extract to casein, improves plasma lipids in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys. J Nutr 1999;129:1585-92.
71. Greaves KA, Wilson MD, Rudel LL, et al. Consumption of soy protein reduces cholesterol absorption compared to casein protein alone or supplemented with an isoflavone extract or conjugated equine estrogen in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys. J Nutr 2000;130:820-6.
72. Yudkin J, Kang SS, Bruckdorfer KR. Effects of high dietary sugar. Br Med J 1980;281:1396.
73. Reiser S. Effect of dietary sugars on metabolic risk factors associated with heart disease. Nutr Health 1985;3:203-16.
74. Liu K, Stamler J, Trevisan M, Moss D. Dietary lipids, sugar, fiber, and mortality from coronary heart disease. Bivariate analysis of international data. Arteriosclerosis 1982;2:221-7.
75. Urgert R, Schulz AG, Katan MB. Effects of cafestol and kahweol from coffee grounds on serum lipids and serum liver enzymes in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:149-54.
76. Superko HR, Bortz WM, Albers JJ, Wood PJ. Lipoprotein and apolipoprotein changes during a controlled trial of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee drinking in men. Circulation 1989;80:II-86.
77. Nygard O, Refsum H, Velanb PM, et al. Coffee consumption and plasma total homocysteine: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:136-43.
78. Gross G, Jaccaud E, Huggett AC. Analysis of the content of the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in coffee brews. Food Chem Toxicol 1997;35:547-54.
79. D'Amicis A, Scaccini C, Tomassi G, et al. Italian style brewed coffee: effect on serum cholesterol in young men. Int J Epidemiol 1996;25:513-20.
80. D'Avanzo B, Santoro L, Nobill A, La Vecchia C. Coffee consumption and serum cholesterol. GISSI-EFRIM Study Group. Prev Med 1993;22:219-24.
81. Regular or decaf? Coffee consumption and serum lipoproteins. Nutr Rev 1992;50:175-8 [review].
82. Dai WS, Laporte RE, Hom DL, et al. Alcohol consumption and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration among alcoholics. Am J Epidemiol 1985;122:620-7.
83. Marques-Vidal P, Ducimetiere P, Evans A, et al. Alcohol consumption and myocardial infarction: a case-control study in France and northern Ireland. Am J Epidemiol 1996;143:1089-93.
84. Rimm EB, Klatsky A, Grobbee D, Stampfer MJ. Review of moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of coronary heart disease: is the effect due to beer, wine, or spirits? BMJ 1996;312:731-6 [review].
85. Hendriks HF, Veenstra J, Velthuis-te Wierik EJ, et al. Effect of moderate dose of alcohol with evening meal on fibrinolytic factors. BMJ 1994;304:1003-6.
86. Doll R, Peto AR, Hall E, et al. Mortality in relation to consumption of alcohol: 13 years' observations on male British doctors. BMJ 1994;309:911-8.
87. Hein HO, Suadicani P, Gyntelberg F. Alcohol consumption, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, and risk of ischaemic heart disease: six year follow up in the Copenhagen male study. BMJ 1996;736-41.
88. Baggio G, Pagnan A, Muraca M, et al. Olive-oil-enriched diet: effect on serum lipoprotein levels and biliary cholesterol saturation. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;47:960-4.
89. Kris-Etherton PM, Pearson TA, Wan Y, et al. High-monounsaturated fatty acid diets lower both plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:1009-15.
90. Grundy SM. Monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol metabolism: implications for dietary recommendations. J Nutr 1989;119:529-33 [review].
91. Keys A, ed. Coronary heart disease in seven countries. Circulation 1970;41(Suppl Q):I1-211.
92. Kris-Etherton PM, Pearson TA, Wan Y, et al. High-monounsaturated fatty acid diets lower both plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:1009-15.
93. Lichtenstein AH, Ausman LM, Jalbert SM, Schaefer EJ. Effects of different forms of dietary hydrogenated fats on serum lipoprotein cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med 1999;340:1933-40.
94. Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Intake of trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among women. Lancet 1993;341:581-5.
95. Normen L, Dutta P, Lia A, Andersson H. Soy sterol esters and beta-sitostanol ester as inhibitors of cholesterol absorption in human small bowel. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:908-13.
96. Gylling H, Miettinen TA. Cholesterol reduction by different plant stanol mixtures and with variable fat intake. Metabolism 1999;48:575-80.
97. Blair SN, Capuzzi DM, Gottlieb SO, et al. Incremental reduction of serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with the addition of plant stanol ester-containing spread to statin therapy. Am J Cardiol 2000;86:46-52.
98. Jones PJ, Raeini-Sarjaz M, Ntanios FY, et al. Modulation of plasma lipid levels and cholesterol kinetics by phytosterol versus phytostanol esters. J Lipid Res 2000;41:697-705.
99. Hallikainen MA, Sarkkinen ES, Uusitupa MI. Plant stanol esters affect serum cholesterol concentrations of hypercholesterolemic men and women in a dose-dependent manner. J Nutr 2000;130:767-76.
100. Vuorio AF, Gylling H, Turtola H, et al. Stanol ester margarine alone and with simvastatin lowers serum cholesterol in families with familial hypercholesterolemia caused by the FH-North Karelia mutation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:500-6.
101. Nguyen TT, Dale LC, von Bergmann K, Croghan IT. Cholesterol-lowering effect of stanol ester in a US population of mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women: a randomized controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc 1999;74:1198-206.
102. Moghadasian MH, Frohlich JJ. Effects of dietary phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis: clinical and experimental evidence. Am J Med 1999;107:588-94 [review].
103. Warshafsky S, Kamer RS, Sivak SL. Effect of garlic on total serum cholesterol-a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:599-605.
104. McCrindle BW, Helden E, Conner WT. Garlic extract therapy in children with hypercholesterolemia. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998;152:1089-94.
105. Isaacsohn JL, Moser M, Stein EA, et al. Garlic powder and plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:1189-94.
106. Berthold HK, Sudhop T, von Bergmann K. Effect of a garlic oil preparation on serum lipoproteins and cholesterol metabolism. JAMA 1998;279:1900-2.
107. Lawson L. Garlic oil for hypercholesterolemia-negative results. Quart Rev Natural Med Fall 1998;185-6. 108. Lawson LD. Garlic powder for hyperlipidemia-analysis of recent negative results. Quart Rev Natural Med 1998;Fall:187-9.
109. Lawson LD, Ransom DK, Hughes BG. Inhibition of whole blood platelet-aggregation by compounds in garlic clove extracts and commercial garlic products. Thrombosis Res 1992;65:141-56.
110. Mansell P, Reckless JP. Garlic-effects on serum lipids, blood pressure, coagulation, platelet aggregation, and vasodilatation. BMJ 1991;303:379-80 [editorial].
111. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ 1998;317:1341-5.
112. Fraser GE, Sabate J, Beeson WL, Strahan TM. A possible protective effect of nut consumption on risk of coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:1416-24.
113. Abbey M, Noakes M, Belling GB, Nestel PJ. Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:995-9.
114. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ. Nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a review of epidemiologic evidence. Curr Atheroscler Rep 1999;1:204-9.
115. Spiller GA, Jenkins DA, Bosello O, et al. Nuts and plasma lipids: an almond-based diet lowers LDL-C while preserving HDL-C. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:285-90.
116. Spiller GA, Jenkins DJ, Cragen LN, et al. Effect of a diet high in monounsaturated fat from almonds on plasma cholesterol and lipoproteins. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:126-30.
117. Sabate J, Fraser GE, Burke K, et al. Effects of walnuts on serum lipid levels and blood pressure in normal men. N Engl J Med 1993;328:603-7.
118. Zambon D, Campero B, Perez-Heras A, et al. Effects of walnuts on the serum lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects: the Barcelona Walnut Trial. FASEB J 1998;12:A506 [abstract].
119. Zambon D, Sabate J, Munoz S, et al. Substituting walnuts for monounsaturated fat improves the serum lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic men and women. A randomized crossover trial. Ann Intern Med 2000;132:538-46.
120. Colquhoun D, Moores D, Humphries J, Somerset S. Comparison of a high monounsaturated fatty acid diet (enriched with macadamia nut) and a high carbohydrate diet on blood lipids [abstract]. Proceedings of the 59th European Atherosclerosis Congress. Nice, France: May 1992, 17-21.
121. Curb JD, Wergowski G, Abbott RD, et al. High mono-unsaturated fat macadamia nut diets: effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins. FASEB J 1998;12:A506 [abstract].
122. Fraser GE. Nut consumption, lipids, and risk of a coronary event. Clin Cardiol 1999;22(7 Suppl):III11-5 [review]. 123. Curb JD, Wergowske G, Dobbs JC, et al. Serum lipid effects of a high-monounsaturated fat diet based on macadamia nuts. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:1154-8.
124. Durak I, Koksal I, Kacmaz M, et al. Hazelnut supplementation enhances plasma antioxidant potential and lowers plasma cholesterol levels. Clin Chim Actia 1999;284:113-5 [letter].
125. Edwards K, Kwaw I, Matud J, Kurtz I. Effect of pistachio nuts on serum lipid levels in patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia. J Am Coll Nutr 1999;18:229-32.
126. Mirkin G. Walnuts and serum lipids. N Engl J Med 1993;329:358 [letter].
127. Mann GV. Walnuts and serum lipids. N Engl J Med 1993;329:358 [letter].
128. Fraser GE, Jaceldo K, Sabate J, et al. Changes in body weight with a daily supplement of 340 calories from almonds for six months. FASEB J 1999;13:A539 [abstract].
129. Fraser GE. Nut consumption, lipids, and risk of a coronary event. Clin Cardiol 1999;22(7 Suppl):III11-5 [review].
130. Durak I, Koksal I, Kacmaz M, et al. Hazelnut supplementation enhances plasma antioxidant potential and lowers plasma cholesterol levels. Clin Chim Actia 1999;284:113-5 [letter].
131. Jenkins DJA, Khan A, Jenkins AL, et al. Effect of nibbling versus gorging on cardiovascular risk factors: serum uric acid and blood lipids. Metabolism 1995;44:549-55.
132. Edelstein SL, Barrett-Connor EL, Wingard DL, Cohn BA. Increased meal frequency associated with decreased cholesterol concentrations; Rancho Bernardo, CA, 1984-1987. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:664-9.
133. Reaven PD, McPhillips JB, Barrett-Connor EL, Criqui MH. Leisure time exercise and lipid and lipoprotein levels in an older population. J Am Geriatr Soc 1990;38:847-54.
134. Duncan JJ, Gordon NF, Scott CB. Women walking for health and fitness-how much is enough? JAMA 1991;266:3295-9.
135. Tran ZV, Weltman A. Differential effects of exercise on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels seen with changes in body weight: a meta-analysis. JAMA 1985;254:919-24.
136. Pekkanen J, Marti B, Nissinen A, Tuomilehto J. Reduction of premature mortality by high physical activity: a 20-year follow-up of middle-aged Finnish men. Lancet 1987;1:1473-7.
137. Willich SN, Lewis M, Lowel H, et al. Physical exertion as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1684-90.
138. Hubert HB, Feinleib M, McNamara PM, Castelli WP. Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1983;67:968-77.
139. Glueck CJ, Taylor HL, Jacobs D, et al. Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: association with measurements of body mass: the Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study. Circulation 1980;62(Suppl IV):IV62-9.
140. Di Buono M, Hannah JS, Katzel LI, Jones PJH. Weight loss due to energy restriction suppresses cholesterol bioshynthesis in overweight, mildly hypercholesterolemic men. J Nutr 1999;129:1545-8.
141. Wood PD, Stefanick ML, Dreon DM, et al. Changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins in overweight men during weight loss through dieting as compared with exercise. N Engl J Med 1988;319:1173-9.
142. Dwyer JH, Rieger-Ndakorerwa GE, Semmer NK, et al. Low-level cigarette smoking and longitudinal change in serum cholesterol among adolescents. JAMA 1988;2857-62.
143. Khosla S, Laddu A, Ehrenpreis S, Somberg JC. Cardiovascular effects of nicotine: relation to deleterious effects of cigarette smoking. Am Heart J 1994;127:1669-71 [editorial/review].
144. Nyboe J, Jensen G, Appleyard M, Schnohr P. Smoking and the risk of first acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 1991;122:438.
145. Kawachi I, Sparrow D, Spiro A, et al. A prospective study of anger and coronary heart disease. Circulation 1996;94:2090-5.
146. Jiang W, Babyak M, Krantz DS, et al. Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia and cardiac events. JAMA 1996;275:1651-6.
147. Bower B. Women take un-type A behavior to heart. Sci News 1993;144:244.
148. Dimsdale, JE. A perspective on type A behavior and coronary disease. N Engl J Med 1988;318:110-2 [editorial/review].
149. McCann BS, Warnick R, Knopp RH. Changes in plasma lipids and dietary intake accompanying shifts in perceived workload and stress. Psychosomatic Med 1990;52:97-108.
150. Lundberg U, Hedman M, Melin B, Frankenhaeuser M. Type A Behavior in healthy males and females as related to physiological reactivity and blood lipids. Psychosomatic Med 1989;51:113-22.
151. Friedman M, Theresen CE, Gill JJ, et al. Alteration of type A behavior and reduction in cardiac recurrences in postmyocardial infarction patients. Am Heart J 1984;108:237-48.
152. Vuksan V, Jenkins DJ, Spadafora P, et al. Konjac-mannan (glucomannan) improves glycemia and other associated risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. A randomized controlled metabolic trial. Diabetes Care 1999;22:913-9.
153. Zhang MY, Huang CY, Wang X, et al. The effect of foods containing refined Konjac meal on human lipid metabolism. Biomed Environ Sci 1990;3:99-105.
154. Arvill A, Bodin L. Effect of short-term ingestion of konjac glucomannan on serum cholesterol in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:585-9.
155. Walsh DE, Yaghoubian V, Behforooz A. Effect of glucomannan on obese patients: a clinical study. Int J Obes 1984;8:289-93.
156. Nissen S, Sharp RL, Panton L, et al. beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in humans is safe and may decrease cardiovascular risk factors. J Nutr 2000;130:1937-45.
157. Frei B. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:1113-8S.
158. Simon JA. Vitamin C and cardiovascular disease: a review. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:107-27.
159. Gatto LM, Hallen GK, Brown AJ, Samman S. Ascorbic acid induces a favorable lipoprotein profile in women. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15;154-8.
160. Balz F. Antioxidant Vitamins and Heart Disease. Presented at the 60th Annual Biology Colloquium, Oregon State University, February 25, 1999.
161. Galeone F, Scalabrino A, Giuntoli F, et al. The lipid-lowering effect of pantethine in hyperlipidemic patients: a clinical investigation. Curr Ther Res 1983;34:383-90.
162. Miccoli R, Marchetti P, Sampietro T, et al. Effects of pantethine on lipids and apolipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic diabetic and non diabetic patients. Curr Ther Res 1984;36:545-9.
163. Avogaro P, Bon B, Fusello M. Effect of pantethine on lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in man. Curr Ther Res 1983;33;488-93.
164. Coronel F, Tornero F, Torrente J, et al. Treatment of hyperlipemia in diabetic patients on dialysis with a physiological substance. Am J Nephrol 1991;11:32-6.
165. Arsenio L, Bodria P, Magnati G, et al. Effectiveness of long-term treatment with pantethine in patients with dyslipidemia. Clin Ther 1986;8:537-45.
166. Prisco D, Rogasi PG, Matucci M, et al. Effect of oral treatment with pantethine on platelet and plasma phospholipids in IIa hyperlipoproteinemia. Angiology 1987;38:241-7.
167. Gaddi A, Descovich GC, Noseda G, et al. Controlled evaluation of pantethine, a natural hypolipidemic compound, in patients with different forms of hyperlipoproteinemia. Atherosclerosis 1984;50:73-83.
168. Da Col PG, et al. Pantethine in the treatment of hyper-cholesterolemia: a randomized double-blind trial versus tiadenol. Curr Ther Res 1984;36:314.
169. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 1997;46:1786-91.
170. Offenbacher EG, Pi-Sunyer FX. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects. Diabetes 1980;29:919-25.
171. Press RI, Geller J, Evans GW. The effect of chromium picolinate on serum cholesterol and apolipoprotein fractions in human subjects. West J Med 1990;152:41-5.
172. Hermann J, Chung H, Arquitt A, et al. Effects of chromium or copper supplementation on plasma lipids, plasma glucose and serum insulin in adults over age fifty. J Nutr Elderly 1998;18:27-45.
173. Riales R, Albrink MJ. Effect of chromium chloride supplementation on glucose tolerance and serum lipids including high-density lipoprotein of adult men. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:2670-8.
174. Roeback JR, Hla KM, Chambless LE, Fletcher RH. Effects of chromium supplementation on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in men taking beta-blockers. Ann Intern Med 1991;115:917-24.
175. Uusitupa MI, Kumpulainen JT, Voutilainen E, et al. Effect of inorganic chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin response, and serum lipids in noninsulin-dependent diabetics. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:404-10.
176. Uusitupa MI, Mykkanen L, Siitonen O, et al. Chromium supplementation in impaired glucose tolerance of elderly: effects on blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide and lipid levels. Br J Nutr 1992;68:209-16.
177. Boyd SG, Boone BE, Smith AR, et al. Combined dietary chromium picolinate supplementation and an exercise program leads to a reduction of serum cholesterol and insulin in college-aged subjects. J Nutr Biochem 1998;9:471-5.
178. Wang MM, Fox EA, Stoecker BJ, et al. Serum cholesterol of adults supplemented with brewer's yeast or chromium chloride. Nutr Res 1989;9:989-98.
179. Newman HA, Leighton RF, Lanese RR, Freedland NA. Serum chromium and angiographically determined coronary artery disease. Clin Chem 1978;541-4.
180. Brown WV. Niacin for lipid disorders. Postgrad Med 1995;98:185-93 [review].
181. Guyton JR, Blazing MA, Hagar J, et al. Extended-release niacin vs gemfibrozil for the treatment of low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Niaspan-Gemfibrozil Study Group. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:1177-84.
182. McKenney JM, Proctor JD, Harris S, Chinchili VM. A comparison of the efficacy and toxic effects of sustained- vs immediate-release niacin in hypercholesterolemic patients. JAMA 1994;271:672-7.
183. Knopp RH, Ginsberg J, Albers JJ, et al. Contrasting effects of unmodified and time-release forms of niacin on lipoproteins in hyperlipidemic subjects: clues to mechanism of action of niacin. Metabolism 1985;34:642-50.
184. Gray DR, Morgan T, Chretien SD, Kashyap ML. Efficacy and safety of controlled-release niacin in dyslipoproteinemic veterans. Ann Intern Med 1994;121:252-8.
185. Rader JI, Calvert RJ, Hathcock JN. Hepatic toxicity of unmodified and time-release preparations of niacin. Am J Med 1992;92:77-81 [review].
186. Knopp RH. Niacin and hepatic failure. Ann Intern Med 1989;111:769 [letter].
187. Goldberg A, Alagona P Jr, Capuzzi DM, et al. Multiple-dose efficacy and safety of an extended-release form of niacin in the management of hyperlipidemia. Am J Cardiol 2000;85:1100-5.
188. Head KA. Inositol hexaniacinate: a safer alternative to niacin. Alt Med Rev 1996;1:176-84 [review].
189. Murray M. Lipid-lowering drugs vs. Inositol hexaniacinate. Am J Natural Med 1995;2:9-12 [review].
190. Dorner Von G, Fisher FW. Zur Beinflussung der Serumlipide und-lipoproteine durch den Hexanicotinsaureester des m-Inositol. Arzneimittel Forschung 1961;11:110-3.
191. Carrol KK, Kurowska EM. Soy consumption and cholesterol reduction: review of animal and human studies. J Nutr 1995;125:594-7S.
192. Crouse JR 3rd, Morgan T, Terry JG, et al. A randomized trial comparing the effect of casein with that of soy protein containing varying amounts of isoflavones on plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:2070-6.
193. Nestel PJ, Yamashita T, Sasahara T, et al. Soy isoflavones improve systemic arterial compliance but not plasma lipids in menopausal and perimenopausal women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997;17:3392-8.
194. Samman S, Lyons, Wall PM, et al. The effect of supplementation with isoflavones on plasma lipids and oxidisability of low density lipoprotein in premenopausal women. Atherosclerosis 1999;147:277-83.
195. Lees AM, Mok HY, Lees RS, et al. Plant sterols as cholesterol-lowering agents: Clinical trials in patients with hypercholesterolemia and studies of sterol balance. Atheroscler 1977;28:325-38.
196. Pelletier X, Belbraouet S, Mirabel D, et al. A diet moderately enriched in phytosterols lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations in normocholesterolemic humans. Ann Nutr Metab 1995;39:291-5.
197. Grundy SM, Ahrens EH Jr, Davignon J. The interaction of cholesterol absorption and cholesterol synthesis in man. J Lipid Res 1969;10:304-15 [review].
198. Hendriks HF, Weststrate JA, van Vliet T, Meijer GW. Spreads enriched with three different levels of vegetable oil sterols and the degree of cholesterol lowering in normocholesterolaemic and mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53:319-27.
199. Jones PJ, Ntanios FY, Raeini-Sarjaz M, Vanstone CA. Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a sitostanol-containing phytosterol mixture with a prudent diet in hyperlipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:1144-50.
200. Blair SN, Capuzzi DM, Gottlieb SO, et al. Incremental reduction of serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with the addition of plant stanol ester-containing spread to statin therapy. Am J Cardiol 2000;86:46-52.
201. Jones PJ, Raeini-Sarjaz M, Ntanios FY, et al. Modulation of plasma lipid levels and cholesterol kinetics by phytosterol versus phytostanol esters. J Lipid Res 2000;41:697-705.
202. Hallikainen MA, Sarkkinen ES, Uusitupa MI. Plant stanol esters affect serum cholesterol concentrations of hypercholesterolemic men and women in a dose-dependent manner. J Nutr 2000;130:767-76.
203. Vuorio AF, Gylling H, Turtola H, et al. Stanol ester margarine alone and with simvastatin lowers serum cholesterol in families with familial hypercholesterolemia caused by the FH-North Karelia mutation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:500-6.
204. Nguyen TT, Dale LC, von Bergmann K, Croghan IT. Cholesterol-lowering effect of stanol ester in a US population of mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women: a randomized controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc 1999;74:1198-206.
205. Law M. Plant sterol and stanol margarines and health. BMJ 2000;320:861-4.
206. Parker RA, Pearce BC, Clark RW, et al. Tocotrienols regulate cholesterol production in mammalian cells by post-transcriptional suppression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. J Biol Chem 1993;268(15):11230-8.
207. Pearce BC, Parker RA, Deason ME, et al. Hypocholesterolemic activity of synthetic and natural tocotrienols. J Med Chem 1992;35:3595-606.
208. Qureshi AA, Bradlow BA, Brace L, et al. Response of hypercholesterolemic subjects to administration of tocotrienols. Lipids 1995;30:1171-7.
209. Qureshi AA, Qureshi N, Wright JJ, et al. Lowering serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans by tocotrienols (palmvitee). Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:1021-6S.
210. Wahlqvist ML, Krivokuca-Bogetic A, Lo CS, et al. Differential serum response of tocopherols and tocotrienols during vitamin supplementation in hypercholesterolemic individuals without change in coronary risk factors. Nutr Res 1992;12:S181-201.
211. Mensink RP, van Houwelingen AC, Kromhout D, Hornstra G. A vitamin E concentrate rich in tocotrienols had no effect on serum lipids, lipoproteins, or platelet function in men with mildly elevated serum lipid concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:213-9.
212. Davis GK, Mertz W. Copper. In: Mertz W, ed. Trace elements in human and animal nutrition, vol. 1. 5th ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 1987, 301-64 [review].
213. Klevay LM. Dietary copper: a powerful determinant of cholesterolemia. Med Hypotheses 1987;24:111-9 [review].
214. Hermann J, Chung H, Arquitt A, et al. Effects of chromium or copper supplementation on plasma lipids, plasma glucose and serum insulin in adults over age fifty. J Nutr Elderly 1998;18:27-45.
215. Bell S, Goldman VM, Bistrian BR, et al. Effect of beta-glucan from oats and yeast on serum lipids. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1999;39:189-202 [review].
216. Behall KM, Scholfield DJ, Hallfrisch J. Effect of beta-glucan level in oat fiber extracts on blood lipids in men and women. J Am Coll Nutr 1997;16:46-51.
217. Braaten JT, Wood PJ, Scott FW, et al. Oat beta-glucan reduces blood cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994;48:465-74.
218. Davidson MH, Dugan LD, Burns JH, et al. The hypocholesterolemic effects of beta-glucan in oatmeal and oat bran. A dose-controlled study. JAMA 1991;265:1833-9.
219. Wood PJ. Physicochemical properties and physiological effects of the (1----3)(1----4)-beta-D-glucan from oats. Adv Exp Med Biol 1990;270:119-27.
220. Uusitupa MI, Miettinen TA, Sarkkinen ES, et al. Lathosterol and other non-cholesterol sterols during treatment of hypercholesterolaemia with beta-glucan-rich oat bran. Eur J Clin Nutr 1997;51:607-11.
221. Lia A, Hallmans G, Sandberg AS, et al. Oat beta-glucan increases bile acid excretion and a fiber-rich barley fraction increases cholesterol excretion in ileostomy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:1245-51.
222. Bell S, Goldman VM, Bistrian BR, et al. Effect of beta-glucan from oats and yeast on serum lipids. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1999;39:189-202 [review].
223. Nicolosi R, Bell SJ, Bistrian BR, et al. Plasma lipid changes after supplementation with beta-glucan fiber from yeast. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:208-12.
224. Behall KM, Scholfield DJ, Hallfrisch J. Effect of beta-glucan level in oat fiber extracts on blood lipids in men and women. J Am Coll Nutr 1997;16:46-51.
225. Braaten JT, Wood PJ, Scott FW, et al. Oat beta-glucan reduces blood cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994;48:465-74.
226. Uusitupa MI, Ruuskanen E, Makinen E, et al. A controlled study on the effect of beta-glucan-rich oat bran on serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects: relation to apolipoprotein E phenotype. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:651-9.
227. Yacowitz H, Fleischman AI, Bierenbaum ML. Effects of oral calcium upon serum lipids in man. Br Med J 1965;1:1352-4.
228. Bell L, Halstenson CE, Halstenson CJ, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of calcium carbonate in patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:2441-4.
229. Karanja N, Morris CD, Illingworth DR, Plasma lipids and hypertension: response to calcium supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;45:60-5.
230. Denke MA, Fox MM, Schulte MC. Short-term dietary calcium fortification increases fecal saturated fat content and reduces serum lipids in men. J Nutr 1993;123:1047-53.
231. Bostick RM, Fosdick L, Grandits GA, et al. Effect of calcium supplementation on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Arch Fam Med 2000;9:31-9.
232. Cloarec MJ, Perdriset GM, Lamberdiere FA, et al., Alpha-tocopherol: effect on plasma lipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic patients. Isr J Med Sci 1987;23:869-72.
233. Kesaniemi YA, Grundy SM. Lack of effect of tocopherol on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;36:224-8.
234. Kalbfleisch JH, Barboriak JJ, Else BA, et al. alpha-Tocopherol supplements and high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Br J Nutr 1986;55:71-7.
235. Stampfer MJ, Willett W, Castelli WP, et al. Effect of vitamin E on lipids. Am J Clin Pathol 1983;79:714-6.
236. Belcher JD, Balla J, Balla G, et al. Vitamin E, LDL, and endothelium: brief oral vitamin supplementation prevents oxidized LDL-mediated vascular injury in vitro. Arterioscler Thromb 1993;13:1779-89.
237. Traber MG. Does vitamin E decrease heart attack risk? summary and implications with respect to dietary recommendations. J Nutr 2001;131:395S-7S. [review].
238. Pola P, Savi L, Grilli M, et al. Carnitine in the therapy of dyslipidemic patients. Curr Ther Res 1980;27:208-16.
239. Stefanutti C, Vivenzio A, Lucani G, et al. Effect of L-carnitine on plasma lipoprotein fatty acids pattern in patients with primary hyperlipoproteinemia. Clin Ter 1998;149:115-9.
240. Maebashi M, Kawamura N, Sato M, et al. Lipid-lowering effect of carnitine in patients with type-IV hyperlipoproteinaemia. Lancet 1978;ii:805-7.
241. Rossi CS, Siliprandi N. Effect of carnitine on serum HDL-cholesterol: report of two cases. Johns Hopkins Med J 1982;150:51-4.
242. Pola P, Savi L, Grilli M, et al. Carnitine in the therapy of dyslipidemic patients. Curr Ther Res 1980;27:208-16.
243. Davini P, Bigalli A, Lamanna F, Boehm A. Controlled study on L-carnitine therapeutic efficacy in post-infarction. Drugs Exptl Clin Res 1992;18:355-65.
244. Davis WH, Leary WP, Reyes AJ, Olhaberry JV. Monotherapy with magnesium increases abnormally low high density lipoprotein cholesterol: a clinical assay. Curr Ther Res 1984;36:341-6.
245. Nozue T, Kobayashi A, Uemasu F, et al. Magnesium status, serum HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-1 levels. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1995;20:316-8.
246. Baxter GF, Sumeray MS, Walker JM. Infarct size and magnesium: insights into LIMIT-2 and ISIS-4 from experimental studies. Lancet 1996;348:1424-6.
247. Galloe A, Rasmussen HS, Jorgensen LN, et al. Influence of oral magnesium supplementation on cardiac events among survivors of an acute myocardial infarction. BMJ 1993;307:585-7.
248. Izuka K, Murata K, Nakazawa K, et al. Effects of chondroitin sulfates on serum lipids and hexosamines in atherosclerotic patients: With special reference to thrombus formation time. Jpn Heart J 1968;9:453-60.
249. Nakazawa K, Murata K. Comparative study of the effects of chondroitin sulfate isomers on atherosclerotic subjects. ZFA 1979;34:153-9.
250. Morrison LM, Enrick NL. Coronary heart disease: reduction of death rate by chondroitin sulfate A. Angiology 1973;24:269-87.
251. Childs MT, Bowlin JA, Ogilvie JT, et al. The contrasting effects of a dietary soya lecithin product and corn oil on lipoprotein lipids in normolipidemic and familial hypercholesterolemic subjects. Atherosclerosis 1981;38:217-28.
252. Knuiman JT, Beynen AC, Katan MB. Lecithin intake and serum cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49:266-8.
253. Wilson TA, Meservey CM, Nicolosi RJ. Soy lecithin reduces plasma lipoprotein cholesterol and early atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic monkeys and hamsters: beyond linoleate. Atherosclerosis 1998;140:147-53.
254. Oosthuizen W, Vorster HH, Vermaak WJ, et al. Lecithin has no effect on serum lipoprotein, plasma fibrinogen and macro molecular protein complex levels in hyperlipidaemic men in a double-blind controlled study. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:419-24.
255. Koide SS. Chitin-chitosan: properties, benefits and risks. Nutr Res 1998;18:1091-101 [review].
256. Maezaki Y, Tsuji K, Nakagawa Y, et al. Hypocholesterolemic effect of chitosan in adult males. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1993;57:1439-44.
257. Wuolijoki E, Hirvela T, Ylitalo P. Decrease in serum LDL cholesterol with microcrystalline chitosan. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1999;21:357-61.
258. Abou-Hozaifa BM, Badr El-Din NK. Royal jelly, a possible agent to reduce the nicotine-induced atherogenic lipoprotein profile. Saudi Med J 1995;16:337-42.
259. Abou-Hozaifa BM, Roston AAH, El-Nokaly FA. Effects of royal jelly and honey on serum lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol in rats fed cholesterol-enriched diet. J Biomed Sci Ther 1993;9:35-44.
260. Cho YT. Studies on royal jelly and abnormal cholesterol and triglycerides. Am Bee J 1977;117:36-9.
261. Liusov VA, Zimin IU. Experimental rational and trial of therapeutic use of bee raising product in cardiovascular diseases. Kardiologia 1983;23:105-9 [in Russian].
262. Vittek J. Effect of royal jelly on serum lipids in experimental animals and humans with atherosclerosis. Experientia 1995;51:927-35.
263. Earnest CP, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. High-performance capillary electrophoresis-pure creatine monohydrate reduces blood lipids in men and women. Clin Sci 1996;91:113-8.
264. Volek JS, Duncan ND, Mazzetti SA, et al. No effect of heavy resistance training and creatine supplementation on blood lipids. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2000;10:144-56.
265. Pons P, Rodriquez M, Mas R, et al. One-year efficacy and safety of policosanol in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. Curr Ther Res 1994;55:1084-92.
266. Aneiros E, Calderson B, Mas R, et al. Effect of successive dose increases of policosanol on the lipid profile and tolerability of treatment. Curr Ther Res 1993;54:304-12.
267. Castano G, Canetti M, Moreira M, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of policosanol in elderly patients with type II hypercholesterolemia: a 12-month study. Curr Ther Res 1995;56:819-23.
268. Castano G, Tula L, Canetti M, et al. Effects of policosanol in hypertensive patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. Curr Ther Res 1996;57:691-5.
269. Menendez R, Arruzazabala L, Mas R, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effect of policosanol on rabbits with hypercholesterolaemia induced by a wheat starch-casein diet. Br J Nutr 1997;77:923-32.
270. Heinecke JW, Rosen H, Suzuki LA, Chait A. The role of sulfur-containing amino acids in superoxide production and modification of low density lipoprotein by arterial smooth muscle cells. Biol Chem 1987;262:10098-103.
271. Ubbink JB, Hayward WJ, van der Merwe A, et al. Vitamin requirements for the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in humans. J Nutr 1994;124:1927-33.
272. Woodside JV, Young IS, Yarnell JW, et al. Antioxidants, but not B-group vitamins increase the resistance of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation: a randomized, factorial design, placebo-controlled trial. Atherosclerosis 1999;144:419-27.
273. Endo A. Monacolin K, a new hypocholesterolemic agent produced by a Monascus species. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1979;32:852-4.
274. Heber D, Yip I, Ashley JM, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of a proprietary Chinese red-yeast-rice dietary supplement. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:231-6.
275. Li C, Zhu Y, Wang Y, et al. Monascus purpureus-fermented rice (red yeast rice): a natural food product that lowers blood cholesterol in animal models of hypercholesterolemia. Nutr Res 1998;18:71-81.
276. Wang J, Lu Z, Chi J, et al. Multicenter clinical trial of the serum lipid-lowering effects of a Monascus purpureus (red yeast) rice preparation from traditional Chinese medicine. Curr Ther Res 1997;58:964-77.
277. Heber D, Yip I, Ashley JM, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of a proprietary Chinese red-yeast-rice dietary supplement. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:231-6.
278. Olson BH, Anderson SM, Becker MP, et al. Psyllium-enriched cereals lower blood total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but not HDL cholesterol, in hypercholesterolemic adults: results of a meta-analysis. J Nutr 1997;127:1973-80.
279. Anderson JW, Davidson MH, Blonde L, et al. Long-term cholesterol-lowering effects as an adjunct to diet therapy in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1433-8.
280. Romero AL, Romero JE, Galaviz S, Fernandez ML. Cookies enriched with psyllium or oat bran lower plasma LDL cholesterol in normal and hypercholesterolemic men from Northern Mexico. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:601-8.
281. Agarwal RC, Singh SP, Saran RK, et al. Clinical trial of gugulipid new hypolipidemic agent of plant origin in primary hyperlipidemia. Indian J Med Res 1986;84:626-34.
282. Nityanand S, Srivastava JS, Asthana OP. Clinical trials with Gugulipid-a new hypolipidemic agent. J Assoc Phys India 1989; 37:323-8.
283. Singh RB, Niaz MA, Ghosh S. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of Commiphora mukul as an adjunct to dietary therapy in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1994;8:659-64.
284. Asgary S, Naderi GH, Sarrafzadegan N, et al. Antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effects of Achillea wilhelmsii. Drugs Exp Clin Res 2000;26:89-93.
285. Warshafsky S, Kamer R, Sivak S. Effect of garlic on total serum cholesterol: a meta-analysis. Ann Int Med 1993;119(7)599-605.
286. Silagy C, Neil A. Garlic as a lipid-lowering agent- a meta-analysis. J R Coll Phys London 1994;28(1):39-45.
287. Neil HA, Silagy CA, Lancaster T, et al. Garlic powder in the treatment of moderate hyperlipidaemia: a controlled trial and a meta-analysis. J R Coll Phys 1996;30:329-34.
288. McCrindle BW, Helden E, Conner WT. Garlic extract therapy in children with hypercholesterolemia. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998;152:1089-94.
289. Isaacsohn JL, Moser M, Stein EA, et al. Garlic powder and plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:1189-94.
290. Berthold HK, Sudhop T, von Bergmann K. Effect of a garlic oil preparation on serum lipoproteins and cholesterol metabolism. JAMA 1998;279:1900-2.
291. Superko HR, Krauss RM. Garlic powder, effect on plasma lipids, postprandial lipemia, low-density lipoprotein particle size, high-density lipoprotein subclass distribution and lipoprotein(a). J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:321-6.
292. Lawson L. Garlic oil for hypercholesterolemia-negative results. Quart Rev Natural Med Fall 1998;185-6.
293. Lawson LD. Garlic powder for hyperlipidemia-analysis of recent negative results. Quart Rev Natural Med Fall, 1998;187-9.
294. Berthold HK, Sudhop T, von Bergmann K. Effect of a garlic oil preparation on serum lipoproteins and cholesterol metabolism. JAMA 1998;279:1900-2.
295. Silagy C, Neil A. Garlic as a lipid-lowering agent-a meta-analysis. J R Coll Physicians London 1994;28:39-45.
296. Silagy C, Neil A. Garlic as a lipid-lowering agent-a meta-analysis. J R College Phys London 1994;28:39-45.
297. Kono S, Shinchi K, Ikeda N, et al. Green tea consumption and serum lipid profiles: a cross-sectional study in Northern Kyushu, Japan. Prev Med 1992;21:526-31.
298. Yamaguchi Y, Hayashi M, Yamazoe H, et al. Preventive effects of green tea extract on lipid abnormalities in serum, liver and aorta of mice fed an atherogenic diet. Nip Yak Zas 1991;97(6):329-37.
299. Sagesaka-Mitane Y, Milwa M, Okada S. Platelet aggregation inhibitors in hot water extract of green tea. Chem Pharm Bull 1990;38(3):790-3.
300. Stensvold I, Tverdal A, Solvoll K, et al. Tea consumption. Relationship to cholesterol, blood pressure, and coronary and total mortality. Prev Med 1992;21:546-53.
301. Tsubono Y, Tsugane S. Green tea intake in relation to serum lipid levels in middle-aged Japanese men and women. Ann Epidemiol 1997;7:280-4.
302. Fintelmann V. Antidyspeptic and lipid-lowering effect of artichoke leaf extract. Zeitschirfit fur Allgemeinmed 1996;72:1-19.
303. Heckers H, Dittmar K, Schmahl FW, Huth K. Inefficiency of cynarin as therapeutic regimen in familial type II hyperlipoproteinemia. Atherosclerosis 1977; 26:249-53.
304. Englisch W, Beckers C, Unkauf M, et al. Efficacy of artichoke dry extract in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. Arzneimittelforschung 2000;50:260-5.
305. Sauvaire Y, Ribes G, Baccou JC, Loubatieres-Mariani MM. Implication of steroid saponins and sapogenins in the hypocholesterolemic effect of fenugreek. Lipids 1991;26:191-7.
306. Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L) on blood lipids, blood sugar, and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostagland Leukotrienes Essential Fatty Acids 1997;56:379-84.
307. Sharma RD, Raghuram TC, Rao NS. Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 1990;44:301-6.
308. Sharma RD, Sarkar DK, Hazra B, et al. Hypolipidaemic effect of fenugreek seeds: a chronic study in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Phytother Res 1996;10:332-4.
309. Sharma RD, Raghuram TC, Dayasagar Rao V. Hypolipidaemic effect of fenugreek seeds. A clinical study. Phyother Res 1991;5:145-7.
310. Prasanna M. Hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek: a clinical study. Indian J Phramcol 2000;32:34-6.
311. Sowmya P, Rajyalakshmi P. Hypocholesterolemic effect of germinated fenugreek seeds in human subjects. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1999;53:359-65.
312. Araghiniknam M, Chung S, Nelson-White T, et al. Antioxidant activity of dioscorea and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in older humans. Life Sci 1996;11:147-57.
313. Kubo K, Nanba H. Anti-hyperliposis effect of maitake fruit body (Grifola frondosa). I. Biol Pharm Bull 1997;20:781-5.
314. Story JA. Alfalfa saponins and cholesterol interactions. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;39:917-29. One preliminary human trial found that 120 grams per day of heat-treated alfalfa seeds for eight weeks led to a modest reduction in cholesterol.
315. Malinow MR, Bardana EJ, Goodnight SH. Pancytopenia during ingestion of alfalfa seeds. Lancet 1981;i:615.