Citicoline (2002, 2017) & Vascular Cognitive Decline
Vascular cognitive decline or impairment, known as VCI, is the second most common type of demential after Alzheimer's. Citicoline is one of the supplements being studied as part of VCI treatment.
Farooq MU, Min J, Coshgarian C, Gorelick PB. (2017). Pharmacotherapy for Vascular Cognitive Impairment. CNS Drugs. Sep;31(9):759-776.
Citicoline is a choline precursor and as such has been proposed for use in traumatic brain injury, stroke, vascular dementia, and brain aging. Due to its effects on cognitive disturbance some researchers recommend it as long-term preventive treatment for patients at high risk of Alzheimer's.
Blount PJ, Nguyen CD, McDeavitt JT. (2002). Clinical use of cholinomimetic agents: a review. J Head Trauma Rehabil. Aug; 17(4):314-21.
Gavrilova SI, Federova laB, Gantman, Kalyn laB, Kolykhalov IV. (2011). [Ceraxon (citicoline) in the treatment of the mild cognitive impairment syndrome.]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2011;111(12):16-20.
Researchers find that it may be beneficial in both degenerative and vascular (inadequate blood supply to brain) cognitive decline because it inhibits cell death (apoptosis), increases neuroplasticity potential (adaptability), and supports acetylcholine synthesis (essential for brain functioning). It improves that effectiveness of cholinergic precursor drugs resulting in overall disease slowing.
Gareri P, Castagna A, Cotroneo AM, Putignano D, Conforti R, et al. (2017). The Citicholinage Study: Citicoline Plus Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Aged Patients Affected with Alheimer's Disease Study. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;56(2):557-565.