Glutathione (2012, '14, '17, '18, '19) & Alzheimer's
Glutathione (best taken sublingually or intravenously) is the most abundant antioxidant found in the brain. Glutathione is referred to as the "anti-aging antioxidant" because it is one of the few nutrients that can neutralize the full spectrum of different types of free radicals in one’s body, and is one of the body’s most potent antioxidants. It is comprised of three amino acids: glycine, glutamine, and cysteine. Glutathione is the most prevalent antioxidant in the brain. It is the richest non-protein thiol molecule in tissues and possesses the ability to prevent cerebral ROS accumulation.
Glutathione levels are becoming an important therapeutic target both to reduce the impacts of aging1 as well as in the treatment of age-associated neurological diseases such as AD.2 Glutathione levels are of interest to AD researchers because glutathione levels are depleted in AD patients3, 4, 5 and AD-caused increases in oxidative stress are attributed to reduced levels of glutathione6 in the temporal and parietal regions of the brain. In fact, glutathione levels in the brain are relevant AD biomarkers.7, 8 Scientists are examining the methods for increasing these levels as an AD therapy.9
1. Sohal RS, Orr WC. (2012). The redox stress hypothesis of aging. Free Radic Biol Med. Feb 1; 52(3):539-555.
2. Ballatori N, Krance SM, Notenboom S, Shi S, Tieu K, et al. (2009). Glutathione dysregulation and the etiology and progression of human diseases. Biol Chem. Mar; 390(3):191-214.
3. Rae CD, Williams SR. (2017). Glutathione in the human brain: Review of its roles and measurement by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Anal Biochem. Jul 15;529:127-143.
4. Mazzetti AP, Fiorile MC, Primavera A, Lo Bello M. (2015). Glutathione transferases and neurodegenerative diseases. Neurochem Int. Mar;82:10-8.
5. Shukla D, Mandal PK, Ersland L, Gruner ER, Tripathi M, et al. (2018). Multi-Center Study on Human Brain Glutathione Conformation using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. J Alzheimers Dis. 2018;66(2):517-532.
6. Saharan S, Mandal PK. (2014). The emerging role of glutathione in Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;40(3):519-29.
7. Mandal PK, Saharan S, Tripathi M, Murari G. (2015). Brain glutathione levels-a novel biomarker for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Biol Psychiatry. Nov 15;78(10):702-10.
8. Mandal PK, Shukla D, Tripathi M, Ersland L. (2019). Cognitive Improvement with Gultathione Supplement in Alzheimer's Disease: A Way Forward. J Alzheimers Dis. 2019;68(2):531-535.
9. Peter C, Braidy N, Zarka M, Welch J, Bridge W. (2015). Therapeutic approaches to modulating glutathione levels as a pharmacological strategy in Alzheimer's disease. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2015;12(4):298-313.