Grapeseed Extract (2008, '09, '11, '13, '17, '19) & Alzheimer's
Grapeseed Extract (GSE) has potent antioxidant and neurogenesis properties, protects the central nervous system from reactive oxygen species. GSE potently inhibits the aggregation of amyloid beta peptides into amyloid fibrils (through its component, gallic acid).1 GSE's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory flavonoids inhibit aggregation2, 3, 4 of amyloid beta peptides into neurotoxic soluble amyloid beta.5, 6, 7.
Researchers find that grape seed proanthocyanidins reduce oxidative damage by inhibiting opening of pores in the mitochondrial membrane (such opening, stimulated by certain biochemical accumulations and depletions results in increased oxidative stress.8
Use of resveratrol (a grape seed component) and grape seed extract in nanoparticle form appear to be more effectively delivered to the brain as evidenced by research with human brain-like endothelial cells.9.
1. Liu Y, Lukala TL, Musgrave IF, Williams DM, Dehle FC, et al. (2013). Gallic acid is the major component of grape seed extract that inhibits amyloid fibril formation. Bioor Med Chem Lett. Dec 1;23(23):6336-40.
2. Ono K, Condron MM, Ho L, Wang J, Zhao W, et al. (2008). Effects of grape seed-derived polyphenols on amyloid beta protein self-assembly and cytoxicity. J Biol Chem. Nov 21;283(47):32176-87.
3. Asha Devi S, Sagar Chandrasekar BK, Manjula KR, Ishii N. (2011). Grape seed proanthocyandin lowers brain oxidative stress in adult and middle-aged rats. Exp Gerontol. Nov;46(11):958-64.
4. Wang J, Ho L, Zhao W, Ono K, Rosensweig C, et al. (2008). Grape-derived polyphenolics prevent Abeta oligomerization and attenuate cognitive deterioration in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci. Jun 18;28(25):6388-92.
5. Ibid. Ono. (2008).
6. Sarkaki A, Rafiereirad M, Hossini SE, Farbood Y, Motamedi F, et al. (2013). Improvement in Memory and Brain Long-term Potentiation Deficits Due to Permanent Hypoperfusion/Ischemia by Grape Seed Extract in Rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2013 Sep;16(9):1004-10.
7. Wang JY, Thomas P, Zhong JH, Bi FF, Kosaraju S, et al. (2009). Consumption of grape seed extract prevents amyloid-beta deposition and attenuates inflammation in brain of an Alzheimer's disease mouse. Neurotox Res. Jan;15(1):3-14.
8. Sun Q, Jia N, Li X, Yang J, Chen G. (2019). Grape seed proanthocyanidins ameliorate neuronal oxidative damage by inhibiting GSK-3B-dependend mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in an experimental model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Aging (Albany NY). Jun 24;11(12):4107-4124.
9. Loureiro JA, Andrade S, Duarte A, Neves AR, Queiroz JF, et al. (2017). Resveral and Grape Extract-loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. Molecules. Feb 13;22(2):277.