Melatonin (2013, '17, '18, '19) & Alzheimer's
Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland and its production runs parallel to AD progression. Quality of sleep is dependent upon melatonin, and it appears to be a safe and effective treatment for AD patients with sleep dysfunction.1 Melatonin stimulates non amyloidogenic processing and inhibits beta amyloid precursor protein processing which culminates in amyloid aggregates - a neuroprotective function in AD pathology.2 It decreases AD-like tau hyperphosphorylation, protects the cholinergic system and is anti-inflammatory. As such, it may be a useful agent in preventing and treating AD.3 Weak melatonin signaling (melatonin receptor type 1A gene) appears to contribute to the cascade of AD pathology.4
Not only does magnesium have a crucial role in protecting circadian rhythm, and improving signaling pathways, but it appears to limit beta amyloid accumulation, amyloid fibrillation, nerve cell death as AD progresses.5
1. Wang YY, Zheng W, Ng CH, Ungvari GS, Wei W, et al. (2017). Meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of melatonin in Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. Jan;32(1):50-57.
2. Shukla M, Govitrapong P, Boontem P, Reiter RJ, Satayavivad J. (2017). Mechanisms of Melatonin in Alleviating Alzheimer's Disease. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2017;15(7):1010-1031.
3. Lin L, Huang QX, Yang SS, Chu J, Wang JZ, et al. (2013). Melatonin in Alzheimer's disease. Int J Mol Sci. Jul 12;14(7):14575-93.
4. Sulkaya S, Muggalla P, Sulkava R, Ollila HM, Peuralinna T, et al. (2018). Melatonin receptor type 1A gene linked to Alzheimer's disease in old age. Sleep. Jul;41(7):zsy103.
5. Hossain MD, Uddin MD, Uddin GMS, Sumsuzzman DM, Islam MD, et al. (2019). Melatonin in Alzheimer's Disease: A Latent Endogenous Regulator of Neurogenesis to Mitigate Alzheimer's Neuropathology. Mol Neurobiol. Dec;56(12):8255-8276.