Vinpocetine (2015, 2019) & Alzheimer's
Vinpocetine's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties have been central to its role in AD treatments and it clearly improved deterioration in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of AD isolated rats.1 Alzheimer is also characterized by bone loss. Physical and mental activities enhance the neuroprotective capacity of vinpocetine and CoQ10 which markedly reduce neurodegeneration as evidenced by improvement in AD, oxidant, and inflammatory biomarkers in brain tissue.2
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that break down the backbone of DNA or RNA. There are 11 main subtypes which act in various chronic conditions such as heart disease, Alzheimer's, and autoimmune conditions. PDEIs are synthetic or natural molecules which inhibit PDEs. One of these inhibitors is vinpocetine (PDE1-1)3 which acts against against reduced plasticity and neurogenesis in AD patients. PDE1-1 has a possible positive effect on memory impairment.4
1. Ali AA, Ahmed HI, Khaleel SA, Abu-Elfotuh K. (2019). Vinpocetine mitigates aluminum-induced cognitive impairment in socially isolated rats. Physiol Behav. Sep 1;208:112571.
2. Ali AA, Abo El-Ella DM, El-Emam SZ, Shahat AS, El-Sayed RM. (2019). Physical & mental activities enhance the neuroprotective effect of inpocetine & coenzyme Q10 combination against Alzheimer & bone remodeling in rats. Life Sci. Jul 15;229:21-35.
3. Nabavi SM, Talarek S, Listos J, Nabavi SF, Devi KP, et al. (2019). Phosphodiesterase inhibitors say NO to Alzheimer's disease. Food Chem Toxicol. Dec;134:110822.
4. Heckman PR, Wouters C, Prickaerts J. (2015). Phosphodiesterase inhibitors as a target for cognition enhancement in aging and Alzheimer's disease: a translational overview. Curr Pharm Des. 2015;21(3):317-31.