Vitamins A, C, and E (1994) -Macular Degeneration
Researchers investigated the relationship between consumption of carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E, which have a positive impact on advanced age-related macular degeneration.
The study included 356 U.S. patients (ages 55-80) with advanced macular degeneration and 520 controls. Risk due to other factors, such as smoking was taken into account.
The researchers found that those who ate foods in the top 1/5th of amounts of carotenoids, (ie, lutein and zeaxanthin), had a 43% lower risk of age-related macular degeneration than those who took the least amounts. The vitamins did not have a statistically significant lowered risk, although the patients who got their vitamin C from foods rather than supplements had a slighter lower risk. Dark leafy greens were the most significant food in terms of lowering the risk of advanced macular degeneration.
Researchers: Johanna M. Seddon, et al
Published: Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group, Journal of the American Medical Association, November, 1994