Xtra Info: Diabetes Mellitus Bibliography through 2000

Also see Research discussion for diabetes mellitus

1. Colditz GA, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Diet and risk of clinical diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:1018-23.
2. Feskens EJ, Bowles CH, Kromhout D. Carbohydrate intake and body mass index in relation to the risk of glucose intolerance in an elderly population. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:136-40.
3. Wright DW, Hansen RI, Mondon CE, Reaven GM. Sucrose-induced insulin resistance in the rat: modulation by exercise and diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:879-83.
4. Reiser S, Hallfrisch J, Fields M, et al. Effects of sugars on indices of glucose tolerance in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;43:151-9.
5. Cohen AM, Bavly S, Poznanski R. Change of diet of Yemenite Jews in relation to diabetes and ischaemic heart-disease. Lancet 1961;2:1399-401.
6. Cohen AM, Fidel J, Cohen B, et al. Diabetes, blood lipids, lipoproteins, and change of environment: restudy of the "new immigrant Yemenites" in Israel. Metabolism 1979;28:716-28.
7. Feskens EJ, Bowles CH, Kromhout D. Carbohydrate intake and body mass index in relation to the risk of glucose intolerance in an elderly population. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:136-40.
8. Wolever TMS, Brand Miller J. Sugars and blood glucose control. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:212S-7S [review].
9. Wolever TMS, Brand Miller J. Sugars and blood glucose control. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:212S-7S [review].v 10. Salmeron J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 1997;277:472-7.
11. Salmeron J, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, et al. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 1997;20:545-50.
12. Feskens EJ, Virtanen SM, Rasanen L, et al. Dietary factors determining diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. A 20-year follow-up of the Finnish and Dutch cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Diabetes Care 1995;18:1104-12.
13. Salmeron J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 1997;277:472-7.
14. Salmeron J, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, et al. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 1997;20:545-50.
15. Colagiuri S, Miller JJ, Edwards RA. Metabolic effects of adding sucrose and aspartame to the diet of subjects with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:474-8.
16. Abraira C, Derler J. Large variations of sucrose in constant carbohydrate diets in type II diabetes. Am J Med 1988;84:193-200.
17. Loghmani E, Rickard K, Washburne L, et al. Glycemic response to sucrose-containing mixed meals in diets of children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr 1991;119:531-7.
18. American Diabetes Association. Position Statement: nutrition recommendations and principles for people with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1999;22:S42-5 [review].
19. Brand-Miller J, Foster-Powell K. Diets with a low glycemic index: from theory to practice. Nutr Today 1999;34:64-72 [review].
20. Chandalia M, Garg A, Lutjohann D, et al. Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. New Engl J Med 2000;342:1392-8.
21. Florholmen J, Arvidsson-Lenner R, Jorde R, Burhol PG. The effect of Metamucil on postprandial blood glucose and plasma gastric inhibitory peptide in insulin-dependent diabetics. Acta Med Scand 1982;212:237-9.
22. Rodriguez-Moran M, Guerrero-Romero F, Lazcano-Burciaga G. Lipid- and glucose-lowering efficacy of plantago psyllium in type II diabetes. Diabetes Its Complications 1998;12:273-8.
23. Landin K, Holm G, Tengborn L, Smith U. Guar gum improves insulin sensitivity, blood lipids, blood pressure, and fibrinolysis in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:1061-5.
24. Schwartz SE, Levine RA, Weinstock RS, et al. Sustained pectin ingestion: effect on gastric emptying and glucose tolerance in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48:1413-7.
25. Hallfrisch J, Scholfield DJ, Behall KM. Diets containing soluble oat extracts improve glucose and insulin responses of moderately hypercholesterolemic men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:379-84.
26. Doi K, Matsuura M, Kawara A, Baba S. Treatment of diabetes with glucomannan (konjac mannan). Lancet 1979;1:987-8 [letter].
27. Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Owen R, et al. Beneficial effects of viscous dietary fiber from Konjac-mannan in subjects with the insulin resistance syndrome: results of a controlled metabolic trial. Diabetes Care 2000;23:9-14.
28. Sharma RD, Raghuram TC. Hypoglycaemic effect of fenugreek seeds in non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects. Nutr Res 1990;10:731-9.
29. Raghuram TC, Sharma RD, Sivakumar B, Sahay BK. Effect of fenugreek seeds on intravenous glucose disposition in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Phytother Res 1994;8:83-6.
30. Nuttall FW. Dietary fiber in the management of diabetes. Diabetes 1993;42:503-8.
31. Feskens EJM, Bowles CH, Kromhout D. Inverse association between fish intake and risk of glucose intolerance in normoglycemic elderly men and women. Diabetes Care 1991;14:935-41.
32. Mori TA, Bao DQ, Burke V, et al. Dietary fish as a major component of a weight-loss diet: effect on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin metabolism in overweight hypertensive subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:817-25.
33. Snowdon DA, Phillips RL. Does a vegetarian diet reduce the occurrence of diabetes? Am J Publ Health 1985;75:507-12.
34. Crane MG, Sample CJ. Regression of diabetic neuropathy with vegan diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48:926 [abstract #P28].
35. Crane MG, Sample C. Regression of diabetic neuropathy with total vegetarian (vegan) diet. J Nutr Med 1994;4:431-9.
36. Cohen D, Dodds R, Viberti G. Effect of protein restriction in insulin dependent diabetics at risk of nephropathy. BMJ 1987;294:795-8.
37. Evanoff G, Thompson C, Bretown J, Weinman E. Prolonged dietary protein restriction in diabetic nephropathy. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:1129-33.
38. Gin H, Aparicio M, Potauz L, et al. Low-protein, low-phosphorus diet and tissue insulin sensitivity in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with chronic renal failure. Nephron 1991;57:411-5.
39. Baba NH, Sawaya S, Torbay N, et al. High protein vs high carbohydrate hypoenergetic diet for the treatment of obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999;23:1202-6.
40. Feskens EJ, Virtanen SM, Rasanen L, et al. Dietary factors determining diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. A 20-year follow-up of the Finnish and Dutch cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Diabetes Care 1995;18:1104-12.
41. Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Habitual dietary intake and glucose tolerance in euglycaemic men: the Zutphen Study. Int J Epidemiol 1990;19:953-9.
42. Marshall JA, Hoag S, Shetterly S, et al. Dietary fat predicts conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to NIDDM. The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 1994;17:50-6.
43. Marshall JA, Hamman RF, Baxter J. High-fat, low-carbohydrate diet and the etiology of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: the San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Am J Epidemiol 1991;134:590-603.
44. Uusitupa M, Schwab U, Makimattila S, et al. Effects of two high-fat diets with different fatty acid compositions on glucose and lipid metabolism in healthy young women. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:1310-6.
45. Sarkkinen E, Schwab U, Niskanen L, et al. The effects of monounsaturated-fat enriched diet and polyunsaturated-fat enriched diet on lipid and glucose metabolism in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996;50:592-8.
46. Garg A, Bananome A, Grundy SM, et al. Comparison of a high-carbohydrate diet with a high-monounsaturated-fat diet in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1988;319:829-34.
47. Donaghue KC, Pena MM, Chan AK, et al. Beneficial effects of increasing monounsaturated fat intake in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2000;48:193-9.
48. Muntoni S, Cocco P, Aru G, Cucca F. Nutritional factors and worldwide incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1525-9.
49. Dahl-Jorgensen K, Joner G, Hanssen KF. Relationship between cows' milk consumption and incidence of IDDM in childhood. Diabetes Care 1991;14:1081-3.
50. Coleman DL, Kuzava JE, Leiter EH. Effect of diet on incidence of diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. Diabetes 1990;39:432-6.
51. Gerstein H. Cow's milk exposure and type I diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1994;17:13-9.
52. Virtanen SM, Laara E, Hypponen E, et al. Cow's milk consumption, HLA-DQB1 genotype, and type I diabetes. Diabetes 2000;49:912-7.
53. Hypponen E, Kenward MG, Virtanen SM, et al. Infant feeding, early weight gain, and risk of type I diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1961-5.
54. Verge CF, Howard NJ, Irwig L, et al. Environmental factors in childhood IDDM. A population-based, case-control study. Diabetes Care 1994;17:1381-9.
55. Bodington MJ, McNallyPG, Burden AC. Cow's milk and type I childhood diabetes: no increase in risk. Diabetes Med 1994;11:663-5.
56. Wadsworth EJ, Shield JP, Hunt LP, Baum JD. A case-control study of environmental factors associated with diabetes in the under 5's. Diabetes Med 1997;14:390-6.
57. Dahlquist G, Blom L, Lonnberg G. The Swedish Childhood Diabetes Study-a multivariate analysis of risk determinants for diabetes in different age groups. Diabetologia 1991;34:757-62.
58. Elliott RB, Harris DP, Hill JP, et al. Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and cow milk: casein variant consumption. Diabetologia 1999;42:292-6.
59. Karajalainen J, Martin JM, Knip M, et al. A bovine albumin peptide as a possible trigger of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1992;327:302-7.
60. Scott FWE, Norris JM, Kolb H. Milk and type I diabetes. Diabetes Care 1996;19:379-83 [review].
61. Atkinson MA, Bowman MA, Kao K-J, et al. Lack of immune responsiveness to bovine serum albumin in insulin-dependent diabetes. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1853-8.
62. Gerstein H. Cow's milk exposure and type I diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1994;17:13-9.
63. Akerblom HK, Knip M. Putative environmental factors in Type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Rev 1998;14:31-67 [review].
64. Hypponen E, Kenward MG, Virtanen SM, et al. Infant feeding, early weight gain, and risk of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1961-5.
65. Pettit DJ, Forman MR, Hanson RL, et al. Breast feeding and incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians. Lancet 1997;350:166-8.
66. Isida K, Mizuno A, Murakami T, Shima K. Obesity is necessary but not sufficient for the development of diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 1996;45:1288-95.
67. Casassus P, Fontbonne A, Thibult N, et al. Upper-body fat distribution: a hyperinsulinemia-independent predictor of coronary heart disease mortality. Arterioscler Thromb 1992;1387-92.
68. Karter AJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, Selby JV, et al. Insulin sensitivity and abdominal obesity in African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white men and women. Diabetes 1996;45:1547-55.
69. Park KS, Hree BD, Lee K-U, et al. Intra-abdominal fat is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity in healthy young men. Metabolism 1991;40:600-3.
70. Long SD, Swanson MS, O'Brien K, et al. Weight loss in severely obese subjects prevents the progression of impaired glucose tolerance to type II diabetes. Diabetes Care 1994;17:372.
71. Pi-Sunyer FX. Weight and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63(suppl):426S-9S.
72. Wing RR, Marcuse MD, Blair EH, et al. Caloric restriction per se is a significant factor in improvements in glycemic control and insulin sensitivity during weight loss in obese NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care 1994;17:30.
73. Henry RR, Gumbiner B. Benefits and limitations of very-low-calorie diet therapy in obese NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1991;14:802-23.
74. Hypponen E, Kenward MG, Virtanen SM, et al. Infant feeding, early weight gain, and risk of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1961-5.
75. Hersey WC, Graves JE, Pollock ML, et al. Endurance exercise training improves body composition and plasma insulin responses in 70- to 79-year-old men and women. Metabol 1994;43:847-54.
76. Rasmussen OW, Lauszus FF, Hermansen K. Effects of postprandial exercise on glycemic response in IDDM subjects. Diabetes Care 1994;17:1203.
77. Helmrich SP, Ragland DR, Leung RW, Paffenbarger RS. Physical activity and reduced occurrence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1991;325:147-52.
78. Grimm J-J, Muchnick S. Type I diabetes and marathon running. Diabetes Care 1993;16:1624 [letter].
79. Bell DSH. Exercise for patients with diabetes-benefits, risks, precautions. Postgrad Med 1992;92:183-96 [review].
80. Ligtenberg PC, Blans M, Hoekstra JB, et al. No effect of long-term physical activity on the glycemic control in type 1 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional study. Neth J Med 1999;55:59-63.
81. Kiechl S, Willeit J, Poewe W, et al. Insulin sensitivity and regular alcohol consumption: large, prospective, cross sectional population study Bruneck study. BMJ 1996;313:1040-4.
82. Facchini F, Chen Y-DI, Reaven GM. Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity. Diabetes Care 1994;17:115.
83. Rimm EB, Chan J, Stampfer MJ, et al. Prospective study of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and the risk of diabetes in men. BMJ 1995;310:555-9.
84. Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, et al. A prospective study of moderate alcohol drinking and risk of diabetes in women. Am J Epidemiol 1988;128:549-58.
85. Goden G, Chen X, Desantis R, et al. Effects of ethanol on carbohydrate metabolism in the elderly. Diabetes 1993;42:28-34.
86. Ben G, Gnudi L, Maran A, et al. Effects of chronic alcohol intake on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in subjects with type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. Am J Med 1991;90:70.
87. Young RJ, McCulloch DK, Prescott RJ, Clarke PF. Alcohol: another risk factor for diabetic retinopathy? BMJ 1984;288:1035.
88. Connor H, Marks V. Alcohol and diabetes. A position paper prepared by the Nutrition Subcommittee of the British Diabetic Association's Medical Advisory Committee and approved by the Executive Council of the British Diabetic Association. Human Nutr Appl Nutr 1985;39A:393-9.
89. Ajani UA, Hennekens CH, Spelsberg A, Manson JE. Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among US male physicians. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:1025-30.
90. Wei M, Gibbons LW, Mitchell TL, et al. Alcohol intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes Care 2000;23:18-22.
91. Valmadrid CT, Klein R, Moss SE, et al. Alcohol intake and the risk of coronary heart disease mortality in persons with older-onset diabetes mellitus. JAMA 1999;282:239-46.
92. Wei M, Gibbons LW, Mitchell TL, et al. Alcohol intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes Care 2000;23:18-22.
93. Stegmayr B, Lithner F. Tobacco and end stage diabetic nephropathy. BMJ 1987;295:581-2.
94. Scala C, LaPorte RE, Dorman JS, et al. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus mortality-the risk of cigarette smoking. Circulation 1990;82:37-43.
95. Rimm EB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Cigarette smoking and the risk of diabetes in women. Am J Public Health 1993;83:211-4.
96. Rindone JP, Austin M, Luchesi J. Effect of home blood glucose monitoring on the management of patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in the primary care setting. Am J Manag Care 1997;3:1335-8.
97. Faas A, Schellevis FG, Van Eijk JT. The efficacy of self-monitoring of blood glucose in NIDDM subjects. A criteria-based literature review. Diabetes Care 1997;20:1482-6.
98. [No authors listed.] Position statement: Tests of glycemia in diabetes. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2000;23(Suppl 1):S80-2.
99. Goldstein DE, Little RR, Lorenz RA, et al. Tests of glycemia in diabetes. Diabetes Care 1995;18:896-909 [review].
100. Gallichan M. Self monitoring of glucose by people with diabetes: evidence based practice. BMJ 1997;314:964-7 [review].
101. Steel LG. Identifying technique errors. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in the home setting. J Gerontol Nurs 1994;20:9-12.
102. Foster SA, Goode JV, Small RE. Home blood glucose monitoring. Ann Pharmacother 1999;33:355-63 [review].
103. Herepath WB. Journal Provincial Med Surg Soc 1854:374.
104. Offenbacher EG, Pi-Sunyer FX. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects. Diabetes 1980;29:919-25.
105. Anderson RA. Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes. Diabetes Metab 2000;26:22-7 [review].
106. Anderson RA. Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:548-55 [review].
107. Evans GW. The effect of chromium picolinate on insulin controlled parameters in humans. Int J Biosocial Med Res 1989;11:163-80.
108. Gaby AR, Wright JV. Diabetes. In Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice: Reference Manual and Study Guide. Kent, WA: 1996, 54-64 [review].
109. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, Canary JJ. Supplemental-chromium effects on glucose, insulin, glucagon, and urinary chromium losses in subjects consuming controlled low-chromium diets. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:909-16.
110. Jovanovic L, Gutierrez M, Peterson CM. Chromium supplementation for women with gestational diabetes. J Trace Elem Exptl Med 1999;12:91-8.
111. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. Chromium supplementation of human subjects: effects on glucose, insulin, and lipid variables. Metabolism 1983;32:894-9.
112. Urberg M, Zemel MB. Evidence for synergism between chromium and nicotinic acid in the control of glucose tolerance in elderly humans. Metabolism 1987;36:896-9.
113. Lee NA, Reasner CA. Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on serum triglyceride levels in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1994;17:1449-52.
114. Hermann J, Chung H, Arquitt A, et al. Effects of chromium or copper supplementation on plasma lipids, plasma glucose and serum insulin in adults over age fifty. J Nutr Elderly 1998;18:27-45.
115. Sherman L, Glennon JA, Brech WJ, et al. Failure of trivalent chromium to improve hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 1968;17:439-42.
116. Rabinowitz MB, Gonick HC, Levin SR, Davidson MB. Effects of chromium and yeast supplements on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic men. Diabetes Care 1983;6:319-27.
117. Uusitupa MI, Kumpulainen JT, Voutilainen E, et al. Effect of inorganic chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin response, and serum lipids in noninsulin-dependent diabetics. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:404-10.
118. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 1997;46:1786-91.
119. Gaby AR, Wright JV. Nutritional protocols: diabetes mellitus. In Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice: Protocols and Supporting Information. Kent, WA: 1996, 10.
120. Paolisso G, Scheen A, D'Onofrio FD, Lefebvre P. Magnesium and glucose homeostasis. Diabetologia 1990;33:511-4 [review].
121. Eibl NL, Schnack CJ, Kopp H-P, et al. Hypomagnesemia in type II diabetes: effect of a 3-month replacement therapy. Diabetes Care 1995;18:188.
122. Paolisso G, Sgambato S, Pizza G, et al. Improved insulin response and action by chronic magnesium administration in aged NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care 1989;12:265-9.
123. Lima M, Cruz T, Carreiro Pousada J, et al: The effect of magnesium supplementation in increasing doses on the control of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1998;21:682-6.
124. Paolisso G, Sgambato S, Gambardella A, et al. Daily magnesium supplements improve glucose handling in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:1161-7.
125. Smellie WS, O'Reilly DS, Martin BJ, Santamaria J. Magnesium replacement and glucose tolerance in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:594-6 [letter].
126. Sjorgren A, Floren CH, Nilsson A. Oral administration of magnesium hydroxide to subjects with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Magnesium 1988;121:16-20.
127. de Valk HW, Verkaaik R, van Rijn HJM, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation in insulin-requiring type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 1998;15:503-7.
128. McNair P, Christiansen C, Madsbad S, et al. Hypomagnesemia, a risk factor in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes 1978;27:1075-7.
129. Mimouni F, Miodovnik M, Tsang RC, et al. Decreased maternal serum magnesium concentration and adverse fetal outcome in insulin-dependent diabetic women. Obstet Gynecol 1987;70:85-9.
130. American Diabetes Association. Magnesium supplementation in the treatment of diabetes. Diabetes Care 1992;15:1065-7.
131. Konrad T, Vicini P, Kusterer K, et al. alpha lipoic acid treatment decreases serum lactate and pyruvate concentrations and improves glucose effectiveness in lean and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:280-7.
132. Ruhnau KJ, Meissner HP, Finn JR, et al. Effects of 3-week oral treatment with the antioxidant thioctic acid (alpha-lipoic acid) in symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy. Diabet Med 1999;16:1040-3.
133. Ruhnau KJ, Meissner HP, Finn JR, et al. Effects of 3-week oral treatment with the antioxidant thioctic acid (alpha-lipoic acid) in symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy. Diabet Med 1999;16:1040-3.
134. Reljanovic M, Reichel G, Rett K, et al. Treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy with the antioxidant thioctic acid (alpha-lipoic acid): a two year multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial (ALADIN II). Alpha Lipoic Acid in Diabetic Neuropathy. Free Radic Res 1999;31:171-9.
135. Ziegler D, Schatz H, Conrad F, et al. Effects of treatment with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid on cardiac autonomic neuropathy in NIDDM patients. A 4-month randomized controlled multicenter trial (DEKAN Study). Diabetes Care 1997;20:369-73.
136. Jacob S, Ruus P, Hermann R, et al. Oral administration of RAC-alpha-lipoic acid modulates insulin sensitivity in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled pilot trial. Free Radic Biol Med 1999;27:309-14.
137. Ziegler D, Hanefeld M, Ruhnau KJ, et al. Treatment of symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid: a 7-month multicenter randomized controlled trial (ALADIN III Study). ALADIN III Study Group. Alpha-Lipoic Acid in Diabetic Neuropathy. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1296-301.
138. Jamal GA, Carmichael H. The effect of gamma-linolenic acid on human diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Diabet Med 1990;7:319-23.
139. Doi K. Effect of konjac fibre (glucomannan) on glucose and lipids. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995;49(Suppl. 3):S190-7 [review].
140. Melga P, Giusto M, Ciuchi E, et al. Dietary fiber in the dietetic therapy of diabetes mellitus. Experimental data with purified glucomannans. Riv Eur Sci Med Farmacol 1992;14:367-73 [in Italian].
141. Huang CY, Zhang MY, Peng SS, et al. Effect of Konjac food on blood glucose level in patients with diabetes. Biomed Environ Sci 1990;3:123-31.
142. Vuksan V, Jenkins DJ, Spadafora P, et al. Konjac-mannan (glucomannan) improves glycemia and other associated risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. A randomized controlled metabolic trial. Diabetes Care 1999;22:913-9.
143. Vorster HH, Lotter AP, Odendaal I, et al. Benefits from supplementation of the current recommended diabetic diet with gel fibre. Int Clin Nutr Rev 1988;8:140-6.
144. Cesa F, Mariani S, Fava A, et al. The use of vegetable fibers in the treatment of pregnancy diabetes and/or excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Minerva Ginecol 1990;42:271-4 [in Italian].
145. Knekt P, Reunanen A, Marniumi J, et al. Low vitamin E status is a potential risk factor for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med 1999;245:99-102.
146. Salonen JT, Nyssonen K, Tuomainen T-P, et al. Increased risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus at low plasma vitamin E concentrations: a four year follow up study in men. BMJ 1995;311:1124-7.
147. Bierenbaum ML, Noonan FJ, Machlin LJ, et al. The effect of supplemental vitamin E on serum parameters in diabetics, post coronary and normal subjects. Nutr Rep Int 1985;31:1171-80.
148. Paolisso G, D'Amore A, Giugliano D, et al. Pharmacologic doses of vitamin E improve insulin action in healthy subjects and non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:650-6.
149. Paolisso G, D'Amore A, Galzerano D, et al. Daily vitamin E supplements improve metabolic control but not insulin secretion in elderly type II diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1993;16:1433-7.
150. Tutuncu NB, Bayraktar M, Varli K. Reversal of defective nerve condition with vitamin E supplementation in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1915-8.
151. Paolisso G, Di Maro G, Galzerano D, et al. Pharmacological doses of vitamin E and insulin action in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:1291-6.
152. Paolisso G, Gambardella A, Galzerano D, et al. Antioxidants in adipose tissue and risk of myocardial infarction. Lancet 1994;343:596 [letter].
153. Tutuncu NB, Bayraktar M, Varli K. Reversal of defective nerve condition with vitamin E supplementation in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1915-8.
154. Ross WM, Creighton MO, Stewart-DeHaan PJ, et al. Modelling cortical cataractogenesis: 3. In vivo effects of vitamin E on cataractogenesis in diabetic rats. Can J Ophthalmol 1982;17:61.
155. Bursell SE, Schlossman DK, Clermont AC, et al. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type I diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1245-51.
156. Ceriello A, Giugliano D, Quatraro A, et al. Vitamin E reduction of protein glycosylation in diabetes. Diabetes Care 1991;14:68-72.
157. Duntas L, Kemmer TP, Vorberg B, Scherbaum W. Administration of d-alpha-tocopherol in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Curr Ther Res 1996;57:682-90.
158. Paolisso G, D'Amore A, Galzerano D, et al. Daily vitamin E supplements improve metabolic control but not insulin secretion in elderly type II diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1993;16:1433-7.
159. Jain SK, McVie R, Jaramillo JJ, et al. Effect of modest vitamin E supplementation on blood glycated hemoglobin and triglyceride levels and red cell indices in type I diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15:458-61.
160. Jain SK, McVie R, Smith T. Vitamin E supplementation restores glutathione and malondialdehyde to normal concentrations in erythrocytes of type 1 diabetic children. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1389-94.
161. Reaven PD, Barnett J, Herold DA, Edelman S. Effect of vitamin E on susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein subfractions to oxidation and on protein glycation in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1995;18:807.
162. Bursell S-E, Schlossman DK, Clermont AC, et al. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatineine clearance in patients with type I diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1245-51.
163. Fuller CJ, Chandalia M, Garg A, et al. RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation at pharmacologic doses
decreases low-density-lipoprotein oxidative susceptibility but not protein glycation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:753-9.
164. Skrha J, Sindelka G, Kvasnicka J, Hilgertova J. Insulin action and fibrinolysis influenced by vitamin E in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1999;44:27-33.
165. Leppala JM, Virtamo J, Fogelholm R, et al. Vitamin E and beta carotene supplementation in high risk for stroke: A subgroup analysis of the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study. Arch Neurol 2000;57:1503-9.
166. Cunningham JJ, Ellis SL, McVeigh KL, et al. Reduced mononuclear leukocyte ascorbic acid content in adults with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus consuming adequate dietary vitamin C. Metabolism 1991;40:146-9.
167. Davie SJ, Gould BJ, Yudkin JS. Effect of vitamin C on glycosylation of proteins. Diabetes 1992;41:167-73.
168. Will JC, Tyers T. Does diabetes mellitus increase the requirement for vitamin C? Nutr Rev 1996;54:193-202 [review].
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