Xtra Info: High Cholesterol Bibliography

Also see discussion of high cholesterol and research.

1. Kromhout D, Menotti A, Bloemberg B, et al. Dietary saturated and trans fatty acids and cholesterol and 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease: the Seven Countries Study. Prev Med 1995;24:308-15.
2. Tell GS, Evans GW, Folsom AR, et al. Dietary fat intake and carotid artery wall thickness: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Am J Epidemiol 1994;139:979-89.
3. Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, et al. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial. Lancet 1990;336:129-33.
4. Denke MA, Grundy SM. Comparison of effects of lauric acid and palmitic acid on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:895-8.
5. Zock PL, de Vries JHM, Katan MB. Impact of myristic acid versus palmitic acid on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in healthy women and men. Arterioscler Thromb 1994;14:567-75.
6. Kumar PD. The role of coconut and coconut oil in coronary heart disease in Kerala, south India. Trop Doct 1997;27:215-7.
7. Denke MA, Grundy SM. Comparison of effects lof auric acid and palmitic acid on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:895-8.
8. Mendis S, Kumarasunderam R. The effect of daily consumption of coconut fat and soya-bean fat on plasma lipids and lipoproteins of young normolipidaemic men. Br J Nutr 1990;63:547-52.
9. Dreon DM, Fernstrom HA, Williams PT, Krauss RM. A very-low-fat diet is not associated with improved lipoprotein profiles in men with a predominance of large, low-density lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:411-8.
10. Hepner G, Fried R, St Jeor S, et al. Hypocholesterolemic effect of yogurt and milk. Am J Clin Nutr 1979;19-24.
11. Agerholm-Larsen L, Raben A, Haulrik N, et al. Effect of 8 week intake of probiotic milk products on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:288-97.
12. Bertolami MC, Faludi AA, Batlouni M. Evaluation of the effects of a new fermented milk product (Gaio) on primary hypercholesterolemia. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53:97-101.
13. Anderson JW, Gilliland SE. Effect of fermented milk (yogurt) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus L1 on serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans. J Am Coll Nutr 1999;18:43-50.
14. Schaafsma G, Meuling WJ, van Dokkum W, Bouley C. Effects of a milk product, fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with fructo-oligosaccharides added, on blood lipids in male volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:436-40.
15. Agerbaek M, Gerdes LU, Richelsen B. Hypocholesterolaemic effect of a new fermented milk product in healthy middle-aged men. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995;49:346-52.
16. Richelsen B, Kristensen K, Pedersen SB. Long-term (6 months) effect of a new fermented milk product on the level of plasma lipoproteins-a placebo-controlled and double blind study. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996;50:811-5.
17. De Roos NM, Schouten G, Katan MB. Yoghurt enriched with Lactobacillus acidophilus does not lower blood lipids in healthy men and women with normal to borderline high serum cholesterol levels. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53:277-80.
18. Thompson LU, Jenkins DJ, Amer MA, et al. The effect of fermented and unfermented milks on serum cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;36:1106-11.
19. Rossouw JE, Burger EM, Van der Vyver P, Ferreira JJ. The effect of skim milk, yoghurt, and full cream milk on human serum lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:351-6.
20. Santos MJ, Lopez-Jurado M, Llopis J, et al. Influence of dietary supplementation with fish on plasma total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol fractions in patients with coronary heart disease. J Nutr Med 1992;3:107-15.
21. Kromhout D, Bosschieter EB, Coulander CD. The inverse relation between fish consumption and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 1985;312:1205-9.
22. Ascherio A, Rimm EG, Stampfer MJ, et al. Dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and the risk of coronary disease among men. N Engl J Med 1995;332:977-82.
23. Albert CM, Manson JE, O'Donnell C, et al. Fish consumption and the risk of sudden death in the Physicians' Health Study. Circulation 1996;94(Suppl 1):I-578 [abstract #3382].
24. Thorogood M, Carter R, Benfield L, et al. Plasma lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in people with different diets in Britain. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987;295:351-3.
25. Burr ML, Sweetnam PM. Vegetarianism, dietary fiber and mortality. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;36:873-7.
26. Resnicow K, Barone J, Engle A, et al. Diet and serum lipids in vegan vegetarians: a model for risk reduction. J Am Dietet Assoc 1991;91:447-53.
27. Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, et al. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial. Lancet 1990;336:129-33.
28. Ornish D, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, et al. Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease. JAMA 1998;280:2001-7.
29. Connor SL, Connor WE. The importance of dietary cholesterol in coronary heart disease. Prev Med 1983;12:115-23 [review].
30. Edington JD, Geekie M, Carter R, et al. Serum lipid response to dietary cholesterol in subjects fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:58-62.
31. Raloff J. Oxidized lipids: a key to heart disease? Sci News 1985;127:278.
32. Levy Y, Maor I, Presser D, Aviram M. Consumption of eggs with meals increases the susceptibility of human plasma and low-density lipoprotein to lipid peroxidation. Ann Nutr Metabol 1996;40:243-51.
33. Shekelle RB, Stamler J. Dietary cholesterol and ischaemic heart disease. Lancet 1989;i:1177-9.
34. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, et al. A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women. JAMA 1999;281:1387-94.
35. Anderson JW, Chen WJL. Legumes and their soluble fiber: effect on cholesterol-rich lipoproteins. In: Furda I, ed. Unconventional Sources of Dietary Fiber. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1983.
36. Ripsin CM, Keenan JM, Jacobs DR, et al. Oat products and lipid lowering-a meta-analysis. JAMA 1992;267:3317-25.
37. Anderson JW, Allgood LD, Lawrence A, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium intake adjunctive to diet therapy in men and women with hypercholesterolemia: meta-analysis of 8 controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:472-9.
38. Miettinen TA, Tarpila S. Effect of pectin on serum cholesterol, fecal bile acids and biliary lipids in normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic individuals. Clin Chim Acta 1977;79:471-7.
39. Glore SR, Van Treeck D, Knehans AW, Guild M. Soluble fiber and serum lipids: a literature review. J Am Dietet Assoc 1994;94:425-36.
40. Romero AL, Romero JE, Galaviz S, Fernandez ML. Cookies enriched with psyllium or oat bran lower plasma LDL cholesterol in normal and hypercholesterolemic men from Northern Mexico. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:601-8.
41. Rimm EB, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, et al. Vegetable, fruit, and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. JAMA 1996;275:447-51.
42. Knopp RH, Superko HR, Davidson M, et al. Long-term blood cholesterol-lowering effects of a dietary fiber supplement. Am J Prev Med 1999;17:18-23.
43. Lovegrove JA, Clohessy A, Milon H, Williams CM. Modest doses of beta-glucan do not reduce concentrations of potentially atherogenic lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:49-55.
44. Uusitupa MI, Ruuskanen E, Makinen E, et al. A controlled study on the effect of beta-glucan-rich oat bran on serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects: relation to apolipoprotein E phenotype. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:651-9.
45. Braaten JT, Wood PJ, Scott FW, et al. Oat beta-glucan reduces blood cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994;48:465-74.
46. Davidson MH, Dugan LD, Burns JH, et al. The hypocholesterolemic effects of beta-glucan in oatmeal and oat bran. A dose-controlled study. JAMA 1991;265:1833-9.
47. Onning G, Wallmark A, Persson M, et al. Consumption of oat milk for 5 weeks lowers serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in free-living men with moderate hypercholesterolemia. Ann Nutr Metab 1999;43:301-9.
48. Beer MU, Arrigoni E, Amado R. Effects of oat gum on blood cholesterol levels in healthy young men. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995;49:517-22.
49. Bierenbaum ML, Reichstein R, Watkins TR. Reducing atherogenic risk in hyperlipemic humans with flaxseed supplementation: a preliminary report. J Am Coll Nutr 1993;12:501-4.
50. Cunnane SC, Ganguli S, Menard C, et al. High alpha-linolenic acid flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum): some nutritional properties in humans. Br J Nutr 1993;69:443-53.
51. Arjmandi BH, Khan DA, Juma S, et al. Whole flaxseed consumption lowers serum LDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) concentrations in postmenopausal women. Nutr Res 1998;18:1203-14.
52. Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Vidgen E, et al. Health aspects of partially defatted flaxseed, including effects on serum lipids, oxidative measures, and ex vivo androgen and progestin activity: a controlled crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:395-402.
53. Kelley DS, Nelson GJ, Love JE, et al. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid alters tissue fatty acid composition, but not blood lipids, lipoproteins or coagulation status in humans. Lipids 1993;28:533-7.
54. Chan JK, Bruce VM, McDonald BE. Dietary a-linolenic acid is as effective as oleic acid and linoleic acid in lowering blood cholesterol in normolipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:1230-4.
55. Pang D, Allman-Farinelli MA, Wong T, et al. Replacement of linoleic acid with alpha-linolenic acid does not alter blood lipids in normolipidaemic men. Br J Nutr 1998;80:163-7.
56. Mantzioris E, James MJ, Bibson RA, Cleland LG. Dietary substitution with an alpha-linolenic acid-rich vegetable oil increases eicosapentaenoic acid concentrations in tissues. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:1304-9.
57. Layne KS, Goh YK, Jumpsen JA, et al. Normal subjects consuming physiological levels of 18:3(n-3) and 20:5(n-3) from flaxseed or fish oils have characteristic differences in plasma lipid and lipoprotein fatty acid levels. J Nutr 1996;126:2130-40.
58. Nestel PJ, Pomeroy SE, Sasahara T, et al. Arterial compliance in obese subjects is improved with dietary plant n-3 fatty acid from flaxseed oil despite increased LDL oxidizability. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997;17:1163-70.
59. De Lorgeril M, Renaud S, Mamelle N, et al. Mediterranean alpha-linolenic-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Lancet 1994;343:1454-9.
60. De Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin J-L, et al. Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction. Final report of the Lyon Diety Heart Study. Circulation 1999;99:779-85. 61. Rice RD. Mediterranean diet. Lancet 1994;344:893-4 [letter].
62. Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, Cook-Newell ME. Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. N Engl J Med 1995;3333:276-82.
63. Sirtori CR, Pazzucconi F, Colombo L, et al. Double-blind study of the addition of high-protein soya milk v. cows' milk to the diet of patients with severe hypercholesterolaemia and resistance to or intolerance of statins. Br J Nutr 1999;82:91-6.
64. Teixeira SR, Potter SM, Weigel R, et al. Effects of feeding 4 levels of soy protein for 3 and 6 wk on blood lipids and apolipoproteins in moderately hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1077-84.
65. Baum JA, Teng H, Erdman JW Jr, et al. Long-term intake of soy protein improves blood lipid profiles and increases mononuclear cell low-density-lipoprotein receptor messenger RNA in hypercholesterolemic, postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:545-51.
66. Crouse JR 3rd, Morgan T, Terry JG, et al. A randomized trial comparing the effect of casein with that of soy protein containing varying amounts of isoflavones on plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:2070-6.
67. Teixeira SR, Potter SM, Weigel R, et al. Effects of feeding 4 levels of soy protein for 3 and 6 wk on blood lipids and apolipoproteins in moderately hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1077-84.
68. Potter SM, Baum JA, Teng H, et al. Soy protein and isoflavones: their effects on blood lipids and bone density in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:1375-79S.
69. Crouse JR 3rd, Morgan T, Terry JG, et al. A randomized trial comparing the effect of casein with that of soy protein containing varying amounts of isoflavones on plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:2070-6.
70. Greaves KA, Parks JS, Williams JK, Wagner JD. Intact dietary soy protein, but not adding an isoflavone-rich soy extract to casein, improves plasma lipids in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys. J Nutr 1999;129:1585-92.
71. Greaves KA, Wilson MD, Rudel LL, et al. Consumption of soy protein reduces cholesterol absorption compared to casein protein alone or supplemented with an isoflavone extract or conjugated equine estrogen in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys. J Nutr 2000;130:820-6.
72. Yudkin J, Kang SS, Bruckdorfer KR. Effects of high dietary sugar. Br Med J 1980;281:1396.
73. Reiser S. Effect of dietary sugars on metabolic risk factors associated with heart disease. Nutr Health 1985;3:203-16.
74. Liu K, Stamler J, Trevisan M, Moss D. Dietary lipids, sugar, fiber, and mortality from coronary heart disease. Bivariate analysis of international data. Arteriosclerosis 1982;2:221-7.
75. Urgert R, Schulz AG, Katan MB. Effects of cafestol and kahweol from coffee grounds on serum lipids and serum liver enzymes in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:149-54.
76. Superko HR, Bortz WM, Albers JJ, Wood PJ. Lipoprotein and apolipoprotein changes during a controlled trial of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee drinking in men. Circulation 1989;80:II-86.
77. Nygard O, Refsum H, Velanb PM, et al. Coffee consumption and plasma total homocysteine: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:136-43.
78. Gross G, Jaccaud E, Huggett AC. Analysis of the content of the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in coffee brews. Food Chem Toxicol 1997;35:547-54.
79. D'Amicis A, Scaccini C, Tomassi G, et al. Italian style brewed coffee: effect on serum cholesterol in young men. Int J Epidemiol 1996;25:513-20.
80. D'Avanzo B, Santoro L, Nobill A, La Vecchia C. Coffee consumption and serum cholesterol. GISSI-EFRIM Study Group. Prev Med 1993;22:219-24.
81. Regular or decaf? Coffee consumption and serum lipoproteins. Nutr Rev 1992;50:175-8 [review].
82. Dai WS, Laporte RE, Hom DL, et al. Alcohol consumption and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration among alcoholics. Am J Epidemiol 1985;122:620-7.
83. Marques-Vidal P, Ducimetiere P, Evans A, et al. Alcohol consumption and myocardial infarction: a case-control study in France and northern Ireland. Am J Epidemiol 1996;143:1089-93.
84. Rimm EB, Klatsky A, Grobbee D, Stampfer MJ. Review of moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of coronary heart disease: is the effect due to beer, wine, or spirits? BMJ 1996;312:731-6 [review].
85. Hendriks HF, Veenstra J, Velthuis-te Wierik EJ, et al. Effect of moderate dose of alcohol with evening meal on fibrinolytic factors. BMJ 1994;304:1003-6.
86. Doll R, Peto AR, Hall E, et al. Mortality in relation to consumption of alcohol: 13 years' observations on male British doctors. BMJ 1994;309:911-8.
87. Hein HO, Suadicani P, Gyntelberg F. Alcohol consumption, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, and risk of ischaemic heart disease: six year follow up in the Copenhagen male study. BMJ 1996;736-41.
88. Baggio G, Pagnan A, Muraca M, et al. Olive-oil-enriched diet: effect on serum lipoprotein levels and biliary cholesterol saturation. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;47:960-4.
89. Kris-Etherton PM, Pearson TA, Wan Y, et al. High-monounsaturated fatty acid diets lower both plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:1009-15.
90. Grundy SM. Monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol metabolism: implications for dietary recommendations. J Nutr 1989;119:529-33 [review].
91. Keys A, ed. Coronary heart disease in seven countries. Circulation 1970;41(Suppl Q):I1-211.
92. Kris-Etherton PM, Pearson TA, Wan Y, et al. High-monounsaturated fatty acid diets lower both plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:1009-15.
93. Lichtenstein AH, Ausman LM, Jalbert SM, Schaefer EJ. Effects of different forms of dietary hydrogenated fats on serum lipoprotein cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med 1999;340:1933-40.
94. Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Intake of trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among women. Lancet 1993;341:581-5.
95. Normen L, Dutta P, Lia A, Andersson H. Soy sterol esters and beta-sitostanol ester as inhibitors of cholesterol absorption in human small bowel. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:908-13.
96. Gylling H, Miettinen TA. Cholesterol reduction by different plant stanol mixtures and with variable fat intake. Metabolism 1999;48:575-80.
97. Blair SN, Capuzzi DM, Gottlieb SO, et al. Incremental reduction of serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with the addition of plant stanol ester-containing spread to statin therapy. Am J Cardiol 2000;86:46-52.
98. Jones PJ, Raeini-Sarjaz M, Ntanios FY, et al. Modulation of plasma lipid levels and cholesterol kinetics by phytosterol versus phytostanol esters. J Lipid Res 2000;41:697-705.
99. Hallikainen MA, Sarkkinen ES, Uusitupa MI. Plant stanol esters affect serum cholesterol concentrations of hypercholesterolemic men and women in a dose-dependent manner. J Nutr 2000;130:767-76.
100. Vuorio AF, Gylling H, Turtola H, et al. Stanol ester margarine alone and with simvastatin lowers serum cholesterol in families with familial hypercholesterolemia caused by the FH-North Karelia mutation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:500-6.
101. Nguyen TT, Dale LC, von Bergmann K, Croghan IT. Cholesterol-lowering effect of stanol ester in a US population of mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women: a randomized controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc 1999;74:1198-206.
102. Moghadasian MH, Frohlich JJ. Effects of dietary phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis: clinical and experimental evidence. Am J Med 1999;107:588-94 [review].
103. Warshafsky S, Kamer RS, Sivak SL. Effect of garlic on total serum cholesterol-a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:599-605.
104. McCrindle BW, Helden E, Conner WT. Garlic extract therapy in children with hypercholesterolemia. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998;152:1089-94.
105. Isaacsohn JL, Moser M, Stein EA, et al. Garlic powder and plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:1189-94.
106. Berthold HK, Sudhop T, von Bergmann K. Effect of a garlic oil preparation on serum lipoproteins and cholesterol metabolism. JAMA 1998;279:1900-2.
107. Lawson L. Garlic oil for hypercholesterolemia-negative results. Quart Rev Natural Med Fall 1998;185-6. 108. Lawson LD. Garlic powder for hyperlipidemia-analysis of recent negative results. Quart Rev Natural Med 1998;Fall:187-9.
109. Lawson LD, Ransom DK, Hughes BG. Inhibition of whole blood platelet-aggregation by compounds in garlic clove extracts and commercial garlic products. Thrombosis Res 1992;65:141-56.
110. Mansell P, Reckless JP. Garlic-effects on serum lipids, blood pressure, coagulation, platelet aggregation, and vasodilatation. BMJ 1991;303:379-80 [editorial].
111. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ 1998;317:1341-5.
112. Fraser GE, Sabate J, Beeson WL, Strahan TM. A possible protective effect of nut consumption on risk of coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:1416-24.
113. Abbey M, Noakes M, Belling GB, Nestel PJ. Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:995-9.
114. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ. Nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a review of epidemiologic evidence. Curr Atheroscler Rep 1999;1:204-9.
115. Spiller GA, Jenkins DA, Bosello O, et al. Nuts and plasma lipids: an almond-based diet lowers LDL-C while preserving HDL-C. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:285-90.
116. Spiller GA, Jenkins DJ, Cragen LN, et al. Effect of a diet high in monounsaturated fat from almonds on plasma cholesterol and lipoproteins. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:126-30.
117. Sabate J, Fraser GE, Burke K, et al. Effects of walnuts on serum lipid levels and blood pressure in normal men. N Engl J Med 1993;328:603-7.
118. Zambon D, Campero B, Perez-Heras A, et al. Effects of walnuts on the serum lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects: the Barcelona Walnut Trial. FASEB J 1998;12:A506 [abstract].
119. Zambon D, Sabate J, Munoz S, et al. Substituting walnuts for monounsaturated fat improves the serum lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic men and women. A randomized crossover trial. Ann Intern Med 2000;132:538-46.
120. Colquhoun D, Moores D, Humphries J, Somerset S. Comparison of a high monounsaturated fatty acid diet (enriched with macadamia nut) and a high carbohydrate diet on blood lipids [abstract]. Proceedings of the 59th European Atherosclerosis Congress. Nice, France: May 1992, 17-21.
121. Curb JD, Wergowski G, Abbott RD, et al. High mono-unsaturated fat macadamia nut diets: effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins. FASEB J 1998;12:A506 [abstract].
122. Fraser GE. Nut consumption, lipids, and risk of a coronary event. Clin Cardiol 1999;22(7 Suppl):III11-5 [review]. 123. Curb JD, Wergowske G, Dobbs JC, et al. Serum lipid effects of a high-monounsaturated fat diet based on macadamia nuts. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:1154-8.
124. Durak I, Koksal I, Kacmaz M, et al. Hazelnut supplementation enhances plasma antioxidant potential and lowers plasma cholesterol levels. Clin Chim Actia 1999;284:113-5 [letter].
125. Edwards K, Kwaw I, Matud J, Kurtz I. Effect of pistachio nuts on serum lipid levels in patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia. J Am Coll Nutr 1999;18:229-32.
126. Mirkin G. Walnuts and serum lipids. N Engl J Med 1993;329:358 [letter].
127. Mann GV. Walnuts and serum lipids. N Engl J Med 1993;329:358 [letter].
128. Fraser GE, Jaceldo K, Sabate J, et al. Changes in body weight with a daily supplement of 340 calories from almonds for six months. FASEB J 1999;13:A539 [abstract].
129. Fraser GE. Nut consumption, lipids, and risk of a coronary event. Clin Cardiol 1999;22(7 Suppl):III11-5 [review].
130. Durak I, Koksal I, Kacmaz M, et al. Hazelnut supplementation enhances plasma antioxidant potential and lowers plasma cholesterol levels. Clin Chim Actia 1999;284:113-5 [letter].
131. Jenkins DJA, Khan A, Jenkins AL, et al. Effect of nibbling versus gorging on cardiovascular risk factors: serum uric acid and blood lipids. Metabolism 1995;44:549-55.
132. Edelstein SL, Barrett-Connor EL, Wingard DL, Cohn BA. Increased meal frequency associated with decreased cholesterol concentrations; Rancho Bernardo, CA, 1984-1987. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:664-9.
133. Reaven PD, McPhillips JB, Barrett-Connor EL, Criqui MH. Leisure time exercise and lipid and lipoprotein levels in an older population. J Am Geriatr Soc 1990;38:847-54.
134. Duncan JJ, Gordon NF, Scott CB. Women walking for health and fitness-how much is enough? JAMA 1991;266:3295-9.
135. Tran ZV, Weltman A. Differential effects of exercise on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels seen with changes in body weight: a meta-analysis. JAMA 1985;254:919-24.
136. Pekkanen J, Marti B, Nissinen A, Tuomilehto J. Reduction of premature mortality by high physical activity: a 20-year follow-up of middle-aged Finnish men. Lancet 1987;1:1473-7.
137. Willich SN, Lewis M, Lowel H, et al. Physical exertion as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1684-90.
138. Hubert HB, Feinleib M, McNamara PM, Castelli WP. Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1983;67:968-77.
139. Glueck CJ, Taylor HL, Jacobs D, et al. Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: association with measurements of body mass: the Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study. Circulation 1980;62(Suppl IV):IV62-9.
140. Di Buono M, Hannah JS, Katzel LI, Jones PJH. Weight loss due to energy restriction suppresses cholesterol bioshynthesis in overweight, mildly hypercholesterolemic men. J Nutr 1999;129:1545-8.
141. Wood PD, Stefanick ML, Dreon DM, et al. Changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins in overweight men during weight loss through dieting as compared with exercise. N Engl J Med 1988;319:1173-9.
142. Dwyer JH, Rieger-Ndakorerwa GE, Semmer NK, et al. Low-level cigarette smoking and longitudinal change in serum cholesterol among adolescents. JAMA 1988;2857-62.
143. Khosla S, Laddu A, Ehrenpreis S, Somberg JC. Cardiovascular effects of nicotine: relation to deleterious effects of cigarette smoking. Am Heart J 1994;127:1669-71 [editorial/review].
144. Nyboe J, Jensen G, Appleyard M, Schnohr P. Smoking and the risk of first acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 1991;122:438.
145. Kawachi I, Sparrow D, Spiro A, et al. A prospective study of anger and coronary heart disease. Circulation 1996;94:2090-5.
146. Jiang W, Babyak M, Krantz DS, et al. Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia and cardiac events. JAMA 1996;275:1651-6.
147. Bower B. Women take un-type A behavior to heart. Sci News 1993;144:244.
148. Dimsdale, JE. A perspective on type A behavior and coronary disease. N Engl J Med 1988;318:110-2 [editorial/review].
149. McCann BS, Warnick R, Knopp RH. Changes in plasma lipids and dietary intake accompanying shifts in perceived workload and stress. Psychosomatic Med 1990;52:97-108.
150. Lundberg U, Hedman M, Melin B, Frankenhaeuser M. Type A Behavior in healthy males and females as related to physiological reactivity and blood lipids. Psychosomatic Med 1989;51:113-22.
151. Friedman M, Theresen CE, Gill JJ, et al. Alteration of type A behavior and reduction in cardiac recurrences in postmyocardial infarction patients. Am Heart J 1984;108:237-48.
152. Vuksan V, Jenkins DJ, Spadafora P, et al. Konjac-mannan (glucomannan) improves glycemia and other associated risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. A randomized controlled metabolic trial. Diabetes Care 1999;22:913-9.
153. Zhang MY, Huang CY, Wang X, et al. The effect of foods containing refined Konjac meal on human lipid metabolism. Biomed Environ Sci 1990;3:99-105.
154. Arvill A, Bodin L. Effect of short-term ingestion of konjac glucomannan on serum cholesterol in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:585-9.
155. Walsh DE, Yaghoubian V, Behforooz A. Effect of glucomannan on obese patients: a clinical study. Int J Obes 1984;8:289-93.
156. Nissen S, Sharp RL, Panton L, et al. beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in humans is safe and may decrease cardiovascular risk factors. J Nutr 2000;130:1937-45.
157. Frei B. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:1113-8S.
158. Simon JA. Vitamin C and cardiovascular disease: a review. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:107-27.
159. Gatto LM, Hallen GK, Brown AJ, Samman S. Ascorbic acid induces a favorable lipoprotein profile in women. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15;154-8.
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