Binocular Conditions: Signs & Symptoms

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From clinical perspective, signs and symptoms may include some of the following:

Esophoria

Esophoria is a tendency of the eyes to want to turn more inward than necessary when an individual is viewing an object at near or at distance which may cause the individual to experience eyestrain and other symptoms.

  • Symptoms of basic esophoria include: eyestrain, headaches, blurred or double vision, apparent movement of print, and difficulty concentrating on and comprehending reading material.
  • Clinical signs of basic esophoria include: AC/A ratio is normal, equal esophoria at distance and near, and normal near point of convergence.
  • Convergence excess is a clinical condition in which the eyes have a tendency to turn excessively inward when viewing an object at a near distance compared to a far distance. Clinical signs include: greater esophoria at near distance than far distance, high AC/A ratio, and a high lag of accommodation.
  • Treatment options. Sometimes esophoria is caused by a refractive error such as hyperopia (farsightedness), and glasses or contacts can correct the problem alone. However, sometimes vision therapy is needed to help re-train the eyes to function more appropriately.

Exophoria

Exophoria is a tendency of the eyes to want to turn more outward than necessary when an individual is viewing an object at near or at distance, which may cause the individual to experience eyestrain and other symptoms.

  • Symptoms of basic exophoria include: eyestrain, headaches, blurred or double vision, apparent movement of print, and difficulty concentrating on and comprehending reading material.
  • Clinical signs of basic exophoria include: normal AC/A ratio, equal exophoria at distance and near, and decreased near point of convergence.
  • Convergence insufficiency. Greater insufficiency in that the eyes have the inability to turn inward; near point of convergence of greater than 4 inches (10 cm), greater exophoria at near than at distance, and low AC/A ratio.
  • Treatment options. Vision therapy is an effective treatment option.

Fusional Vergence Dysfunction

Fusional vergence dysfunction is the inability to efficiently utilize and/or sustain binocular vision.

  • Symptoms include eyestrain, headaches, decreased comprehension, inability to concentrate while reading, excessive tearing, and blurred vision.
  • Signs. A patient will have difficulty with both base-in and base-out prisms.
  • Treatment options. Vision therapy is an effective treatment option.

Symptoms   Depth perception   Eye teaming   Symptoms (clinical)   Treatment   Self help   Case studies   Research